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Full text of "The Worcester-Philadelphia exhibition of Flemish painting: organized by the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts, and the John G. Johnson Collection, Philadelphia: Worcester Art Museum, February 23-March 12; John G. Johnson collection at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, March 25-April 26, 1939."

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The Worcester-Philadelphia 
Exhibition of Flemish Painting 



ORGANIZED BY 



THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM, WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 
AND THE JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, PHILADELPHIA 



UNDER THE HIGH PATRONAGE OF 

HIS EXCELLENCY THE BELGIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES 

COUNT ROBERT VAN DER STRATEN-PONTHOZ 



Worcester Art Museum 
February 23 — March 12 

John G. Johnson Collection 
at the Philadelphia Museum of Art 

March 25 — April 26 
1939 



Copyright 1939 by 
THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM 

and the 
JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION 

PHILADELPHIA 



Cover Illustration: 64. Portrait of a Man 

by Joos van Clevc 



HONORARY COMMITTEES 



Committee of Honor in Belgium 

His Excellency Monsieur Spaak 
Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs 

His Excellency Monsieur Dierckx 
Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 

Monsieur Vauthier 
Chef du Cabinet of the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 



The President and Members of the Commission for the 
Musee Royal des Beaux- Arts, Antwerp 

The President and Members of the Commission for the 
Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels 

The President and Members of the Commission for the 
Musees de la Ville, Courtrai 

Monsieur le Senateur van Hoestenbergh 

bourgmestre de la vllle de bruges and the 

Commission for the Musee Communal, Bruges 



Monsieur Stuyck del Bruyere, Antwerp 

The Baron E. Coppee, Brussels 

Monsieur Arthur Cornette, Antwerp 

Madame Cranshoff, Brussels 

Madame F. Franchomme, Brussels 

Monsieur Francois Franck, Antwerp 

Madame van Gelder, Brussels 

The Baron Robert Gendebien, Brussels 

Monsieur Sam Hartveld, Antwerp 

Madame G. Hernalsteens van der Waarden, Brussels 

Mesdemoiselles le Maire-Broers, Brussels 

Monsieur Gaston Muller, Brussels 

The Baroness Edith de Reindl, Brussels 

Mr. Millard K. Shaler, Brussels 

Monsieur M. Tschuppik, Zurich, Switzerland 

Mr. W. Hallam Tuck, Waterloo 

Monsieur van der Veken, Brussels 

[4] 



Committee of Honor in the United States 

The Honorable Herbert Hoover, Chairman 

The Honorable Charles Hallaert, Consul of Belgium, New York 

His Excellency Leverett Saltonstall, Governor of Massachusetts 
The Honorable S. Davis Wilson, Mayor of Philadelphia 

The Honorable Howard W. Jackson, Mayor of Baltimore 

The Honorable William A. Bennett, Mayor of Worcester 

The Belgian American Educational Foundation, New York 

The Pennsylvania Company 
Trustee of the John G. Johnson Collection 

The Trustees of the Worcester Art Museum 

R. Kirk Askew, Jr., New York 

Kurt Walter Bachstitz, New York 

George S. Barton, Worcester 

The Honorable Robert Woods Bliss and Mrs. Bliss, Washington 

Alexander H. Bullock, Worcester 

Paul M. Byk, New York 

Paul P. Cret, Philadelphia 

The Honorable Joseph E. Davies and Mrs. Davies, Brussels 

Alexander Dorner, Providence 

George Harold Edgell, Boston 

Lewis M. Evans, Philadelphia 

Edward Waldo Forbes, Cambridge 

Robert T. Francis, New York 

Perrin C. Galpin, New York 

Thomas S. Gates, Philadelphia 

Miss Belle da Costa Greene, New York 

B. Howell Griswold, Jr., Baltimore 

Walter Heil, San Francisco 

[5] 



Committee of Honor in the United States 

Julius S. Held, New York 

Mrs. Bayard Henry, Philadelphia 

Aldus C. Higgins, Worcester 

D. A. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam 

R. Sturgis Ingersoll, Philadelphia 

John Story Jenks, Philadelphia 

Fiske Kimball, Philadelphia 

William Fulton Kurtz, Philadelphia 

C. Morgan Marshall, Baltimore 

William M. Milliken, Cleveland 

J. P. Morgan, New York 

Paul B. Morgan, Worcester 

C. Stevenson Newhall, Philadelphia 

Philip B. Perlman, Baltimore 

Russell A. Plimpton, Minneapolis 

Daniel Catton Rich, Chicago 

David Rosen, Baltimore 

Maurice B. Saul, Philadelphia 

Hanns Schaeffer, New York 

Germain Seligmann, New York 

Harry M. Sperling, New York 

Frank C. Smith, Jr., Worcester 

J. Stogdell Stokes, Philadelphia 

W. R. Valentiner, Detroit 



[6] 



FOREWORD 

This exhibition, which is the result of more than a year of collaboration 
between the John G. Johnson Collection and the Worcester Art Museum, 
is intended to bring to the attention of the public of this country the great 
wealth of Flemish painting in American collections. The group of Flemish 
pictures in the Johnson Collection represents one of the greatest achievements 
of that extraordinary connoisseur who was, in every sense of the word, a genera- 
tion ahead of his time and it is largely due to his influence that the museums 
and collectors of America have added such important pictures to their collec- 
tions. 

The exhibition presents, for the first time in this country, a comprehensive 
survey of Flemish painting from about 1420 to the death of Rubens in 1640. 
The pictures have been gathered from various sources and, while many impor- 
tant American-owned paintings are missing, the principal value of the exhibi- 
tion nevertheless remains unimpaired because of the generous cooperation of 
the Belgian Government. 

The plans for the exhibition were crystallized during the past summer by the 
Executive Committee. Monsieur van Puyvelde has, in general, undertaken the 
selection of pictures from private sources in Belgium and has contributed the 
historical introduction to the Catalogue, the text of which has been prepared 
by Mr. Marceau and Miss Barbara Sweeny of the Johnson Collection and 
Mr. Perry B. Cott and Miss Alice Mundt of the Worcester Art Museum. 

The Trustees of the Worcester Art Museum and the Trustee of the John G. 
Johnson Collection wish to take this opportunity to express their deep gratitude 
to all lenders of works of art. The assistance and cooperation of the Belgian 
Government, both in Brussels as well as at the Embassy in Washington and at 
the Consulate in New York, have been invaluable. To Mr. Perrin C. Galpin 
of the Belgian American Educational Foundation and to the members of the 
staff of the Brussels Museum, who have assisted Monsieur van Puyvelde, we desire 
to express our deepest thanks. 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Leo van Puyvelde 

Conservateur en Chef des Musees Royaux de Belgique 

Henri Marceau 

Curator of the John G. Johnson Collection 

Francis Henry Taylor 

Director of the Worcester Art Museum 



[7] 



INTRODUCTION 

AT the close of the mediaeval period, free industrial and commercial towns 
jLjLwere increasing in number throughout Flanders, then the active center of 
the region now known as Belgium. The history of these towns is remarkable. 
Nothing, except the old free cities of Italy, is comparable to them. In the 
Flemish towns, side by side with the nobility and the small princely courts, a 
new class was arising; a class consisting of the upper bourgeoisie, chiefly manu- 
facturers and merchants. It was strongly aware of its own importance and main- 
tained a self-imposed, solid organization of work, production, commerce and 
civil life. Mindful of its welfare and independence, it enriched itself and 
aspired to the advantages of intellectual culture. For this class the novels, plays, 
songs and scientific books were henceforth written, no longer in Latin, but in 
the popular tongue. From the thirteenth century on, these prosperous towns- 
men erected artistic monuments. Their great churches were modeled after the 
cathedrals of France, but the market-places and the belfry-towers of Ypres, 
Bruges and Ghent presented imposing masses which manifested both prosperity 
and community pride. Facades of town-halls and of private houses, with great 
wealth of sculptured decoration, gave evidence of the joy which Flemish 
burghers experienced in embellishing their cities. 

Nowhere, however, is the spirit of Flanders better expressed than in her paint- 
ings. We have been too quick, perhaps, to describe Flemish art as an art based 
upon the senses and the spirit. This definition lends itself too easily to literary 
analyses of the development of art. Such discussions may be brilliant, like those 
of Taine and Fromentin, and may readily be illustrated with specific examples; 
they are, however, primarily beautiful literary works. Duality— that is, the 
combination of realism and mysticism— is in no way a characteristic peculiar 
to Flemish art. It is inherent in every human being. Man is invariably torn 
between the life of this material world and the life of the spirit; he feels within 
himself the eternal struggle between his attachment to the senses and his aspira- 
tions towards spiritual conceptions. 

The quality which most clearly distinguishes Flemish art is the ability to express 
with complete sincerity its contact with the absolute; it is also distinguished by 

[9] 



its perfection of technique. These two essential characteristics of Flemish art 
are, I think, the means through which this art becomes so comprehensible to the 
American people. 

Complete sincerity in expression is perhaps the most specific quality of Flemish 
art. The Flemish painters said little that had not been said before, but they 
did it in a new way, with more clarity, more precision and through more direct 
forms. 

The basis of Flemish art, of that of the Primitives as well as of the Renaissance 
and Baroque artists, is primarily spiritual, but this quality does not spring from 
the subject-matter alone. It is the result of the habitual state of mind of these 
artists when they were absorbed in their work. The thought-loving souls of the 
Flemish Primitives gathered and listened to the echoes awakened through con- 
tact with infinity. While these artists were contemplating religious subjects, 
prayers were on their lips and reverence filled their hearts. In the silence of 
their studios they meditated upon their daily life, upon the aspect of actual 
things around them, of nature and of man; and their visions assumed the power 
of the infinite. An interior, a landscape or a portrait acquired the reserve and 
the mysterious grandeur of everything which reflects the absolute. The sixteenth 
century Flemish artists, such as Bosch and Bruegel, always saw life in its rela- 
tion to eternal truths; and if they laughed at the whims of men and at the spirit 
of evil, it was done in a philosophical mood which knew how to raise the spirit 
above the contingencies of daily life. Rubens and his followers transformed 
both men and objects— amplified them, magnified them, and created a superior 
world in which there was no place for mediocrity. 

These supreme conceptions, these emotions of an imaginary life, were all realized 
by the Flemish artists in plastic forms which were so sincere, so straightforward 
and precise that the serious spectator cannot help but accept them immediately. 
The Primitives were not afraid of bringing their mystic visions down to realms 
of daily life, and they insisted upon a faithful representation of the material 
aspect of forms. The Renaissance painters used forms whose expressive powers 
they forced almost to the point of deformation. The Baroque painters distended 
the volume of the human body and exalted its power. These are merely expres- 
sive devices. All the so-called realism of the Flemings exists, but it lies in the 
form rather than in the conception. Form is the technical means through which 
an artist reveals to us his vision and his mood. The Flemish people, who scorn 

[10] 



vagueness in their language, literature and plastic art, strive for directness of 
expression. In order to do this in art they abandoned the old worn-out 
formulas. In their zeal to say well and frankly what they had to say, they sought 
austere forms. It is obvious that the representation of an abstract subject 
becomes acceptable when it is brought down to the plane of the tangible 
realities of life— when flesh-color assumes the aspect of human flesh, be it that 
of an old man or of a young girl, or when a garment suggests the heavy texture 
of Flemish cloth or the lightness of Oriental silk. 

It is the second distinguishing characteristic of Flemish art, perfection of work- 
manship, which permits such sincere and direct expression in plastic form. 

A thorough knowledge of the craft was native to the Flemish tradition. As early 
as two hundred years before the time of the van Eycks, severe organization 
had been imposed upon the guild corporations of the Flemish towns. Each 
artist who intended to earn a living from an artistic craft was forced to conform 
strictly to this organization. It was customary for a youth to enter the studio of 
a master-painter as an apprentice, and here he learned the secrets of his craft. 

He could not establish himself as a master or have his own studio until he had 
passed an examination. Men were appointed at the head of the guild to judge 
the value of the works of art put up for sale. Thus in time a store of knowledge 
was accumulated from which each might benefit, and a tradition of respect for 
careful work was established. The painters employed only the purest pigments 
and the very best binding media. They prepared the colors themselves, and 
thus knew which were most efficacious and which were defective. 

The Flemish painters have been called colorists, and the French painter, Louis 
David, when he first went to Brussels, wrote to his friend Gros, "If I had come 
to these provinces sooner, I should have become a colorist." This is possible, 
but I am convinced that if the Flemish painters developed their gift of color 
so intensely it was because they understood their craft perfectly, and because 
they knew how to put into the execution of their work all the care which a 
thorough knowledge of the technique made possible. 

This was undeniably the case in the work of the Primitives. From the time of 
the van Eycks, Flemish perfection of execution and richness of color spread 
beyond the narrow frontiers of their country. Some have tried to explain this 
perfection on the basis of the invention of a new technique, that of painting 

[11] 



with oil. This was the explanation given one hundred years after the time of 
the van Eycks by Vasari, the Italian sixteenth-century author, himself dazzled 
by the new method of oil-painting then being used by the Venetians. This 
theory was later repeated by the first historian of Flemish art, Carel van Mander, 
and many art historians today are still defending it. But it did not take the 
van Eycks to invent the use of oil in painting; it had long been known and 
before their time it had been used in wall-paintings in Flanders. The van Eycks 
and all the Flemish Primitives simply used the method which was current at 
the time. They mixed their coloring matter with egg; chemical examination 
and analysis of the wormanship testify to this; but they used this old method 
with amazing skill. They painted upon a white, smooth foundation which 
contributed greatly to the brilliance of the colors. They chose colored powders 
of a mineral nature, which, when mixed with the entire egg, the yolk as well 
as the white, became as hard as enamel and acquired the transparent quality 
of porcelain. If the colors look like those of precious stones which have been 
ground and melted down, it is also because they set each other off to mutual 
advantage through happy oppositions and subtle accords. 

This interplay of complementary and harmonious colors is based upon "values", 
and the colors blend into a beautiful harmony, giving forth the resonance of 
the polyphonic music in which Flemish composers of the Middle Ages excelled. 
All the inventiveness of the van Eycks lies in their ingenious execution and in 
their recognition of the possibilities of the fund of knowledge which had been 
hoarded away in the studios of the Flemish painters. 

Today, when fashion decrees a facile and rapid art, it must be admitted that 
it is possible to find conventions and weaknesses of representation in the work 
of the Flemish Primitives, but one does not encounter there the gropings nor 
the actual imperfections of execution which are common to most primitive art 
and to every new artistic form. It was perfection of craftsmanship which made 
it possible for these artists to express so directly the vision and the emotion 
which lived within them, and to undertake the representation of many things 
which heretofore had not existed in art. 

This same perfection enabled them to introduce and develop the pictorial 
approach which still predominates today. This pictorial vision shows how a 
ray of colored light falls upon a given surface, how the effect of atmosphere 
reacts upon form. It makes possible the suggestion of space and an indication 

[12] 



of the relationship between an object and its environment. This pictorial 
approach was one of the principal discoveries of the Flemish Primitives. It 
held its place among the finest achievements of Flemish painting, and this was 
as true of the time of Bruegel as of the time of Rubens. 

This quality of beauty of execution makes us regard Flemish art with the 
fervent admiration which we feel for everything which is done with care and 
carried to its full conclusion. It arouses in us that enjoyment of the visual 
senses, almost of the tactile senses, which is the beginning of all artistic sensa- 
tion. It makes us forget that the Flemish painters neglected somewhat the 
beautiful outlines of figures and the well-balanced composition of groups which 
the study of classicism leads us to admire in Italy. But this beauty of execution 
is directly connected with sincerity of expression. 

Sincerity and the eager desire for careful workmanship— these are the two 
characteristics by which all Flemish art may be distinguished from the art of 
other countries. The day will come when we shall also better understand the 
fervent contemplation and the depth of living content which the Flemish 
people have expressed; and when that day comes, the full glory of the Flemish 
painters, now only at its dawning, will shine like the noonday sun. 

Leo van Puyvelde 

(Translated from the French by Huldah Smith) 



[13] 



NOTE ON THE CATALOGUE 

The catalogue is arranged chronologically. In order to preserve continuity 
for study purposes, no attempt has been made to subdivide the catalogue 
into schools. In all cases the attributions are those of the owners. Approximate 
dates of production have been given when these are reasonably well known, 
otherwise dating has been omitted. Sizes of pictures are given in inches, height 
preceding width. Bibliography relating to works has been restricted to listing 
catalogue entries of collections where such catalogues exist and to the listing 
of pictures in Max J. Friedlander's Die Altniederlandische Malerei. In instances 
where works are not published by Friedlander or where they are beyond the 
scope of his work, a listing has been given to identify the pictures under dis- 
cussion. Where Friedlander's work is referred to in the catalogue it is desig- 
nated by F. followed by volume number, the number of the picture and of the 
plate if reproduced. Because of the numerous references to volume two of the 
catalogue of the John G. Johnson Collection, this work is indicated by J. II. 

The catalogue has attempted to present biographies of painters and informa- 
tion concerning pictures in such a manner as to make the catalogue useful to 
visitors and to students. In one or two instances, pictures were entered in the 
exhibition after the catalogue was in press. Because of lack of time, artist and 
title only have been given. 

Much of the material concerning pictures in the Johnson Collection appears 
for the first time. The Pieta by Gerard David, no. 32, the St. Jerome by Simon 
Marmion, no. 18, the Mocking of Christ by Jerome Bosch, no. 41, and the 
Portrait of a Donor and St. John by Hugo van der Goes, no. 14, are published 
for the first time in their present state. The reconstruction of the triptych by 
Bosch, nos. 36, 37, 38, has been especially made for the catalogue. 

The end papers of the catalogue consist of a chart giving the development of 
the Flemish schools of painting. Painters represented in the exhibition appear 
on the chart in vertical lettering. Names of painters not represented are given 
in slanting lettering. Acknowledgment is herewith made to M. Paul Lambotte 
whose splendid chart of the Flemish schools of painting inspired the present one. 



[14] 



CATALOGUE 



JAN VAN EYCK, B. 1380/1400-D. 1441. 

The founder of the Flemish school of the fifteenth century and especially of the 
school of Bruges, Jan van Eyck was born at Maaseyck (Eyck on the Maas) 
between the years 1380 and 1400. He is generally supposed to have been the 
pupil of his almost legendary brother Hubert and, with him, is generally 
credited with the rediscovery of the ancient method of painting in oil. 

It is doubtful whether the age-old controversy over the authorship of the cele- 
brated Ghent altarpiece will ever be indisputably resolved. Despite recent 
words to the contrary, it is believed that Jan finished the Adoration of the Lamb 
designed by his brother but left unfinished for the most part at the latter's death 
in 1426. 

This work alone would have proclaimed Jan one of the greatest masters of all 
time. To it, however, the artist added a rich production of religious paintings, 
portraits, and drawings which have served as the fountain head of Flemish 
painting. Such masterpieces as John Arnolfini and Wife, 1434, in the National 
Gallery; the Virgin, SS. Donatian and George and the Canon G. van der Paele, 
1436, in Bruges; the St. Barbara, 1437, of the Antwerp Museum, to mention but 
a few, leave us to ponder a genius who, steeped in the ancient miniature tradi- 
tion, could in one brief lifetime bring painting to such a degree of perfection. 
Jan van Eyck worked in Ghent, the Hague, and between 1425 and 1428 in Lille 
as court painter to Philip the Good of Burgundy. 

1. ST. FRANCIS RECEIVING THE STIGMATA. (See frontispiece) 

Oil on panel, 5 x 5^. 

Painted about 1438. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 314, repr.; F. I, pp. 101-2, pi. 46. 

Because of the distinction of its conception, the astonishing perfection of 
its execution and its excellent state of preservation, this small panel has 
been justly celebrated ever since its acquisition in 1830 by Lord 
Heytesbury of Wiltshire. Until very recent years it enjoyed the added 
fame of being the only work by the master owned in America. 

The St. Francis was first described by Waagen in 1857 and correctly 
ascribed to Jan rather than Diirer, to whom it had been traditionally 

[15] 



attributed. He also recorded its original size 1 which was some three 
inches taller and a half inch wider than the present dimensions. 

The Johnson St. Francis has long been associated with a slightly larger 2 
picture of the same subject in the Royal Gallery in Turin considered by 
many to be a replica of the Johnson picture and by some to be perhaps 
a copy by another hand. 

Both paintings, however, have been reasonably associated with a pas- 
sage in the will, 3 dated February 10, 1470, of one Anselm Adornes 
(1424-1483), a scion of the Genoese family of Adorno and Burgomaster 
of Bruges in 1475. By the will, we learn that Anselm had two daughters 
who became nuns. Margaret entered the Charterhouse of St. Anne and 
Louisa became canoness of the Abbey of St. Trudo. To each daughter 
their father gave a panel, in which St. Francis was represented in 
"portraiture", from the hand of Jan van Eyck. Anselm further directed 
that portraits of himself and his wife should be painted and added to 
these pictures, presumably to form commemorative triptychs. If these 
instructions were ever carried out the portraits mentioned have not been 
identified. Although the above mentioned will would seem to refer to 
the Johnson panel and the Turin version some students have doubted 
the connection. 4 It has been noted that Anselm Adornes would have 
been only seventeen years of age when Jan van Eyck died in 1441 and, 
consequently, could not have commissioned the master to paint the 
pictures in question. That the Johnson picture was painted in Portugal 
during Jan's southern journey in 1428-29 is suggested by the palmetto 
plant in the foreground and the brown habit worn by the Franciscans 
of southern Europe rather than the grey habit of the northern Grey 
Friars or reformed Franciscans, founded toward the close of the fifteenth 
century. Both of these theories supporting the earlier date, however, fall 
when it is realized that Jan could have produced the St. Francis upon his 
return to Bruges, introducing details made familiar to him during his 
voyages in Spain and Portugal. 5 Likewise it is possible that the will lists 



1. The size, 8x6 inches, given by Waagen was only approximate. The correct size of the 
picture before it was reduced to its present dimensions by Roger Fry was accurately 
recorded by Henry Hymans, Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 1888, vol. 57, pp. 78-83, as 
814 x 5 5/16 inches. The major portion of the added height was accounted for in the 
sky although a small strip at the bottom had also been added, the 9/16 of an inch of 
added width being about equally divided between both sides. 

2. 11x13 inches. 

3. This document was first published by Alexander Pinchart, Archives des Arts, Sciences et 
Lettres, Ghent, 1860, vol. I, p. 264. 

4. cf. W. H. James Weale, London Times, February 3, 1886, p. 7. 

5. cf. F. I, p. 102. 

[16] 



two pictures not commissioned by Anselm Adornes but acquired later 
than 1441. Thus Jan's death in that year need not preclude the possi- 
bility of the master's connection with the pictures. The date 1438, given 
here, is that advanced by Friedlander. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

PETRUS CHRISTUS, B. c. 1410-D. 1472/3. 

Petrus Christus was born at Baerle, near the Dutch border, about the year 
1410. He is generally considered to have been a pupil of Jan van Eyck although 
much in his work is related to Roger van der Weyden and Dirk Bouts. Fry 
points out that similarities in the style of Petrus Christus and Antonello da 
Messina (we may note the St. Eligius in the Lehman Collection, for instance) 
suggest they may have met in Milan. Flemish methods could thus have been 
introduced into Italy. Petrus Christus worked chiefly on portraits and religious 
subjects. 

JAN VAN EYCK AND PETRUS CHRISTUS. 

2. ST. JEROME IN HIS STUDY. 

Oil on panel, 814 x 514. 

Dated, on the wall above the Saint's head, 1442. 

Lit.: W. R. Valentiner, Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, vol. VI, 

1925; F. XIV, p. 79. 

There was a painting of St. Jerome by Jan van Eyck in the collection of 
Lorenzo dei Medici in 1492. A comparison of the present composition 
with the frescoes by Botticelli and Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Church 
of Ognissanti shows that the two Florentine painters had this composition 
as their model. Jan van Eyck died in 1441 and Petrus Christus did not 
become a master in the Guild at Bruges until 1444. In view of the 
extraordinary quality of the upper part of the picture, as compared with 
the execution of the lower part of the Saint's robe and the lion, it seems 
reasonable to suppose that this is a picture left unfinished by Jan van 
Eyck at his death and completed and dated by Petrus Christus. The 
hypothesis gains strength from the fact that the picture was recorded as 
the work of Jan van Eyck within fifty years of its execution. The 
Anonimo Morelliano (A.M.A. Michiel) mentions a St. Jerome by Jan 
van Eyck in the house of Antonio Pasqualino at Venice in the third 
decade of the sixteenth century, which was very probably the same 
picture. 

DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS. 

[17] 



ROBERT CAMPIN (Mditre de Flemalle), B. about 1385, active in 
Tournai 1406-44. 

ROGER VAN DER WEYDEN, B. 1399/1400-D. 1464. 

The story of these two painters is so intimately connected, at least in the light 
of modern scholarship, that it seems advisable to treat them together. 

The general supposition has been that Roger was apprenticed to Robert Campin 
of Tournai, a contemporary of Jan van Eyck and a painter of whom little is 
known save that he may have been born in 1385 and appears in the town 
records of Tournai between the years 1406 and 1444. The evidence for this, 
however, is not conclusive since a document found in Tournai mentions a cer- 
tain Rogelet de la Pasture as commencing his apprenticeship in the studio of 
Campin in 1427 while in another document it is recorded that in 1426 the city 
council of Tournai twice made a present of wine to maitre Roger. It is incon- 
ceivable that maitre Roger, who by 1427 was married and the father of a son, 
could have been the Rogelet who began his studies in that year with Campin. 
Friedlander plausibly suggests that the latter may have been another member 
of the same family, perhaps a nephew. 

If these two documents do not refer to one and the same person, the old theory 
which identified Robert Campin with the so-called Maitre de Flemalle (the 
name derived from panels of an altarpiece in the Frankfort Museum supposedly 
from the Abbey or Chateau of Flemalle), who was stylistically a predecessor of 
Roger, becomes invalid. Emile Renders, the latest to treat the Flemalle- 
Campin-Roger problem, goes so far as to deny the existence of the Maitre de 
Flemalle, ascribing all works hitherto under this attribution to Roger van der 
Weyden. Friedlander partially concurs in this opinion assigning many of the 
pictures formerly under the name of Flemalle to the early period of Roger's 
artistic career (1425-45). Alan Burroughs, by means of a comparative study of 
radiographs, shows that among works assigned to Campin and Roger two 
distinct hands exist. 

Soon after 1432 and certainly before 1435, Roger went to live in Brussels where 
he worked for the remainder of his life. He was made official painter of the 
city in 1436. His work, notable for its power to express intense human drama, 
profoundly influenced the painters of his epoch, not only in Flanders but also 
in Italy, where he traveled in 1450, Germany and France. Roger's style stemmed, 
as did Campin's, from Jan van Eyck. He was the founder and principal orna- 
ment of the school of Brussels. 



[18] 



ROBERT CAMPIN. 

3. PORTRAIT OF A PRINCESS OF THE HOUSE OF SAVOY. 

Oil on panel, 19i/2 x 14. 
Painted about 1420-30. 
Lit.: F. II, no. 57. 

It is supposed that this is a portrait of Marie of Savoy who married 
Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, in 1427 and upon his death in 
1447 became a nun. 

DUMBARTON OAKS COLLECTION, WASHINGTON. 

4. HEAD OF CHRIST AND THE VIRGIN. 

Oil on panel, 12 x 17. 

Painted about 1430-35. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 332, repr.; F. II, no. 56, pi. XLVIII. 

Valentiner, in the Catalogue of the Johnson Collection, rightly indicates 
that these heads, representing the style of Robert Campin, have served 
as prototypes for numerous busts of Christ and the Virgin by the Bouts 
school, Gerard David and Quentin Massys. Notable examples of this are 
to be observed in nos. 330 and 331 in the Johnson Collection, the Bust 
of Christ, attributed to Gerard David, and Virgin and Child, one of 
a series of roundels attributed to Campin or his school. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

5. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH THE CRESCENT. 

Oil on panel, I814 x Ui/ 2 . 

Painted about 1430 or possibly after 1438. 

Lit.: Cinq siecles d'art fiamand, Brussels, 1935, vol. I, no. 13; Charles de 

Tolnay, Le Maitre de Flemalle et les freres van Eyck, Brussels, 1939, p. 16. 

Possessing great charm and originality of composition, this work is 
thought by Friedlander to come very close to Roger van der Weyden. 
The attribution to Campin is by Charles de Tolnay who speaks of the 
picture as follows: "The Virgin with the Crescent in the G. Muller 
Collection at Brussels is a picture which, until now, has been falsely 
ascribed to a contemporary of Roger van der Weyden but which, in 
reality, is a masterpiece of the last period of Robert Campin. Judging 
from its style, it must have been executed after 1438 (the date of the 
Retable of Werl) and presents, once again, that fusion of the divine and 
the terrestrial, which is characteristic of the painter but, in this case, 

[191 



expressed more fully even than in the Virgin of Aix". The picture may be 
compared with the Virgin attributed to Robert Campin in the Kaiser 
Friedrich-Museum, Berlin, no. 1835. A free version of the present picture 
is in the Tobias Christ Collection, Basle. 

GASTON MULLER, BRUSSELS. 

ROGER VAN DER WEYDEN. 

6. CRUCIFIXION. 

7. VIRGIN AND ST. JOHN. 

Oil on panel, 71 x 36% 6 each. 

Painted about 1445. 

Lit.: J. II, nos. 334, 335, both repr.; F. II, no. 15, pi. XII, XIII. 

These two magnificent works are truly representative of Roger's power 
to characterize drama. Fry has analyzed this trait aptly in the following: 

"... with van der Weyden, composition is again a definite mode 
of expression. His great masterpiece in this respect is the Deposition 
at the Escorial where a single, long-drawn, rhythmic phrase binds 
together the whole group of figures which surround the dead Christ. 
To illustrate this point I have chosen this Crucifixion from the 
Johnson Collection in Philadelphia. It is a very original design, a 
genuine discovery of how to express a poignantly dramatic idea by the 
disposition of the main masses and by linear rhythm in which the 
figures are described." 

The two panels are universally accepted not only as works by Roger 
but among his most distinguished. The pictures are usually described 
as the central and left wing of a triptych or, according to Fierens- 
Gevaert, "the reverse sides of the wings of an altarpiece". This state- 
ment is based upon what the author conceives to be the "almost mono- 
chrome" character of the color. Quite the contrary is true, however. 

The panels, with their flaming backgrounds, their shadings of whites, 
suggest, even in their present obscured state, a wide, albeit closely 
adjusted, range of color. The idea of a diptych, thus suggested by 
Fierens-Gevaert fits with the composition of both panels and with the 
fact that a third panel to a possible triptych is not known. If we consider 
the artist's choice of color in a minor key to enhance dramatic effect, 
the Crucifixion and the Virgin and St. John may well be considered as a 
complete work without reference to other known or lost paintings. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

[20] 



8. PORTRAIT OF M. BROERS. 

Oil on panel (transposed on canvas), 43^ x 4. 

Lit.: Dr. C. Le Maire "Vers V identification d'un portrait execute par Roger 
van der Weyden", Bull, de la Societe Royale d'Archeologie de Bruxelles, 
July, 1935, pp. 107-112. 

A portrait, which has remained in the possession of the family, of M. 

Broers alias Bacx, donor of the Deposition by Roger van der Weyden 

in the Escorial. 

MESDEMOISELLES LE MAIRE-BROERS, BRUSSELS. 

9. ST. JEROME AND THE LION. 

Oil on panel, 12 x 10. 

Lit.: F. XIV, p. 88. 

Friedlander, in a communication to the owner, accepts this picture "as a 
work by Roger van der Weyden of the finest quality, especially when one 
contemplates the head of the Saint and the folds of his garment. The 
same composition, with some variations, is to be found on the exterior 
side of the Sforza triptych in the Brussels Museum. But this triptych is 
probably only a work from the workshop of Roger." 

ARNOLD SELIGMANN, REY AND COMPANY, NEW YORK. 

DIRK BOUTS, B. c. 1420-D. 1475. 

Dirk, or Thierry as he is called, was born in Haarlem. Apparently he worked 
in the atelier of Roger van der Weyden between 1440 and 1445. After marrying 
in Louvain in 1447 or 1448 he returned to Haarlem for a period of about ten 
years. In 1457 he again removed to Louvain where he spent the remainder of 
his life. While the influence of Roger is obvious in his work, Dirk Bouts 
enriched Flemish painting with the traditional Dutch love of nature. In addi- 
tion to his prominence in the Flemish school, Bouts is also to be regarded as the 
founder of the Dutch school of painting. 

10. MOSES BEFORE THE BURNING BUSH. 
Oil on panel, 17i/£ x 13i/£. 
Lit.: J. II, no. 339, repr.; F. Ill, no. 13, pi. XX. 

By Dirk Bouts, this important work furnishes an excellent example of 
the method, so well known, of showing the continuous episodes of a 
story in the same picture. The allusion here is described in Exodus, 
III, 2-5: 

3. "Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the 
priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, 

[21] 



and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb. 2. And the angel of 

Jehovah appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a 

bush and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the 

bush was not consumed. 3. And Moses said, I will turn aside now, and 

see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. 4. And when Jehovah 

saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst 

of the bush and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. 5. And 

he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off they shoes from off thy feet, for 

the place whereon thou standest is holy ground." 

The picture, thus accurately described, was exhibited at Manchester, 

England, in 1857, as a work by Jan van Eyck. It was subsequently shown 

at the Royal Academy and at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1892 

under its present attribution. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

11. HEAD OF CHRIST. 

Oil on panel, 14i/£ x lOi^. 

Friedlander, in a communication to the owner, accepts this picture as an 
authentic work of the master. 

ARNOLD SELIGMANN, REY AND COMPANY, NEW YORK. 

12. ST. CHRISTOPHER. 

Oil on panel, 10^ x 7i/ 2 . 

Lit.: J. II, no. 342, repr.; F. Ill, no. 97, pi. LXXX. 

This work was originally thought to have been painted by Memling. 
More recently the attribution has been associated with Aelbrecht Bouts 
on the basis of the similarity of the picture to the one by the elder Bouts 
in the Alt Pinakothek, Munich, H. G. 78. While Conway and Valen- 
tiner concur in this belief, Friedlander feels that the performance in 
the Johnson picture is of superior workmanship and would, therefore, 
attribute it to Aelbrecht's father Dirk. Conway has called attention to 
the existence of a drawing in the Louvre related to this painting. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

HUGO VAN DER GOES, D. 1482. 

The place and date of birth of van der Goes are not known. He was elected a 
member of the Guild at Ghent in 1467 and was the recipient of frequent orders 
from the court of the Duke of Burgundy. In 1475 he retired to the monastery 
of Rouge-Cloitre near Brussels where he continued to paint until 1481. Van der 

[22] 



Goes was influenced by the van Eycks and Roger van der Weyden although there 
is no proof that he was a direct pupil of these masters. His later works are 
characterized by attention to movement and the use of chiaroscuro to give 
depth and reality to his compositions. Because of these innovations and also his 
distinguished color and draftsmanship Hugo van der Goes stands as one of 
the principal masters of fifteenth century Flemish painting. 

13. HOLY FAMILY. 

Oil on panel, 12% x 15%. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 544; F. IV, no. 2. 

Friedlander attributes this to Hugo van der Goes and assigns it to the 
early period of the master. 

MUSfiES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

14. PORTRAIT OF A DONOR AND ST. JOHN. 

Oil on panel, 12^ x 8$/ 4 . 

Lit.: Walters Art Gallery, Handbook of the Collection, 1936, p. 134, repr.; 

F. IV, no. 18, pi. XXIX. 

The spiritual idealization of the St. John contrasts with the forceful 
characterization to be observed in the Donor, which is doubtless a faith- 
ful portrait from life. The picture was probably the right wing of a 
triptych. The present state of the picture reveals the hands of the Donor 
and evidence of a chain about his neck— probably the Order of the Golden 
Fleece. 

WALTERS ART GALLERY, BALTIMORE. 

15. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, W/ 8 x9i/ 2 . 

Lit.: J. II, no. 336, repr.; F. IV, no. I, pi. I. 

There has been considerable discussion as to the identity of the artist 
of this picture. Waagen originally suggested a little known painter, 
Gerhardt van der Meere, of whom no authenticated works are known. 
The panel appears in the Johnson Catalogue as from the hand of Roger 
whose influence is certainly apparent. The present attribution is that 
of Friedlander who considers the picture to be an early work of Hugo 
van der Goes. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 



[23] 



BRUGES MASTER, active about 1460. 

16. THE ANNUNCIATION. 
Oil on panel, 17i/£ x 141^. 
Painted about 1460. 

Lit.: Cat. of . . . Pictures . . . by Old Masters . . . Collection of Mortimer 

L. Schiff, sold London, June 24, 1938, no. 68. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of the Prince of Hohenzollern- 
Sigmaringen, no. 25. Exhibited at the Alt Pinakothek, Munich, 1928. 

ALDUS C. HIGGINS, WORCESTER. 

SIMON MARMION, B. c. 1425-D. 1489. 

Simon Marmion was born at Amiens or Valenciennes about 1425. His father, 
Jean Marmion, was a painter of Amiens. Between 1449 and 1454 he was evi- 
dently engaged as a gilder and polychromist in Amiens and during the latter 
year is known to have completed a figure of Christ for the Hotel de Ville of 
that city. He then went to Lille and in 1455 finished a large re table, consisting 
of twelve panels, representing the story of St. Bertin, the patron of the Abbey 
of St. Omer. This series, now lost, seems to have been the artist's principal work. 
Marmion appears to have worked in Valenciennes after 1460, although he is 
listed in 1468, along with his brother, as a member of the Guild of Tournai. 
In addition to painting religious pictures he was a miniaturist of great ability 
and possibly designed cartoons for tapestries. 

17. PIETA. 

Tempera on parchment, 4i/£ x3i/ 2 . 

Lit.: J. II, no. 343, repr.; Exposition d'art flamand, Antwerp, 1930, vol. IV, 

no. 14. 

This small fragment, taken doubtlessly from a manuscript or Book of 
Hours, is entered by Valentiner in the Johnson Catalogue as possibly by 
Aelbrecht Bouts. It was exhibited at Antwerp in 1930 as a work from 
the studio of Simon Marmion. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

18. ST. JEROME. 

Oil on panel, 25 x \%\/ 2 . 

Painted about 1460. 

Lit.: F., Jahrbuch fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1923, p. 169, pi. 76. 

This wing of a diptych first appeared in the Bruges Exhibition of 1902 
as a work of Roger van der Weyden. It was subsequently attributed to 
Robert Campin and then to its present author by Friedlander. Weale 

[24] 



first suggested that the picture represented St. Jerome and the Canon 
Jerome Busleyden, known as the founder of the Collegium Bursleidarum 
at the University of Louvain. Such identification was doubtless made 
because of the motto Placet which appears over the shield and the letters 
/ B. It has been noted that the Canon Busleyden's dates (about 1470- 
1517) would necessarily place this in the neighborhood of 1510, a date 
much too late for the painting. 

The picture appears in the exhibition in its restored state. The present 
short beard of St. Jerome was found to have been repainted and length- 
ened. Other modifications, due to repainting, involved the drawing of 
the right hand of the Canon and the color of the left sleeve of St. Jerome. 
In the latter case the original fur lining was found intact beneath a heavy 
red pigment intended to match the material of the robe. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory no. 1329. 

19. CRUCIFIXION. 

Oil on panel, 35i/£ x 37%. 

Painted about 1470-75. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 318, repr.; F., Jahrbuch fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1923, p. 168, 

pi. 72. 

Possessing powerful qualities of characterization, especially in the drama- 
tization of sorrow, and admirably solving problems of formal balance, 
this panel has all the dignity of a work by a great master. With a history 
dating back to the Abbey of St. Bertin in St. Omer, France, the picture 
was originally associated with the name of Memling and then with Dirk 
Bouts. Valentiner, in volume II of the Johnson Catalogue, has suggested 
the name of Justus van Ghent and called attention to the attribution 
made by Hulin de Loo to Simon Marmion. This designation, in which 
Friedlander concurs, is necessarily based upon only scant knowledge of 
a very rare artist. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

HANS MEMLING, B. c. 1430-D. 1474. 

Hans Memling, or Memlinc, was born a short distance from Mainz in a village 
recorded as Memelingen. It is probable that he started his early studies in the 
town of his birth. Later he may have studied under Stephen Lochner in 
Cologne. There exists some reason to believe that Memling was also a pupil of 
Roger van der Weyden and ultimately came under the influence of Simon 
Marmion at Valenciennes. 

[25] 



Memling's name is not included among the group of painters and sculptors 
invited to come to Bruges in 1468 to prepare decorations for celebrations attend- 
ing the wedding of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. It is assumed, how- 
ever, that he established himself in Bruges during that year. 

The production of this artist is of the greatest importance in the history of 
Flemish painting. His religious works are possessed of a serene dignity which 
bespeaks an individual of deep religious feeling. Their execution, as well as that 
of the numerous portraits by Memling, reveals a rare combination of mastery 
of color, draftsmanship and monumental organization. 

20. PORTRAIT OF A MAN HOLDING A CARNATION. 
Oil on panel, 15 x 10^£. 

Painted about 1467-72. 

Lit.: F. VI, no. 83; M. Conway, The Van Eycks and their Followers, 1921, 

p. 238. 

The picture was exhibited in the Exposition des primitifs francais, The 
Louvre, 1904, no. 59, as "School of the Loire". 

J. P. MORGAN, NEW YORK. 

21. MARTYRDOM OF ST. SEBASTIAN. 

Oil on panel, 25 x 26. 

Painted about 1470. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 291; F. VI, no. 45. 

The picture was probably painted for the Guild of Archers in Bruges. 
The same subject was painted about 1490 by Memling in one of the 
wings of the Triptych of the Resurrection in the Louvre. 

MUSfiES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

22. CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. 

Oil on panel, 21 x 13. 

Painted about 1480. 

Lit.: J. Ill, no. 1176A, repr.; F. VI, no. 40. 

This exceptionally well preserved example of Memling's art once formed 
part of a diptych, the right panel of which (in the collection of Eugen 
Waniek, Vienna, 1932) represents the Virgin. Both are contemplative in 
mood, modeled with extreme precision and solidity. The monumental 
quality to be observed in our picture is consistent with the conception 
of Christ as the Man of Sorrows. Friedlander has noted a copy of the 
Johnson picture in the Cremer Collection at Dortmund. This has a 
landscape background. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

[26] 



23. HALF FIGURE OF THE VIRGIN. 

Oil on panel, 10^4 x 9. 

Painted about 1490. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 324, repr.; F. VI, no. 27. 

This fragment of a full-length figure of the Virgin of the Annunciation 
was first associated with Memling by Friedlander who in 1911 identified 
it with the Memling Annunciation in the Radziwill Collection in Berlin. 
The fact that the picture is somewhat lacking in the usual high polish of 
the master's detail is largely due to condition. It is probable that the 
balance of the panel, from which this head was saved, may have been dis- 
carded owing to imperfect state of preservation. Infra-red photographs 
reveal clearly the artist's preliminary drawing in the neckline of the 
Virgin's robe and his modifications in the length of the index and second 
fingers, both of which have been shortened. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

24. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, 13%x93/£. 

Lit.: Cleveland Museum of Art, Bulletin, 1934, pp. 139-144. 

CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART. 



FOLLOWER OF HANS MEMLING. 

25. THE INVESTITURE OF ST. ILDEFONSO. 

Oil on panel, 71i/2 x 35. 

Lit.: F. VI, no. 105; Repertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft, vol. 46, p. 38; 

C. R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, vol. IV, pp. 415-416. 

This picture, which was exhibited at Bruges in 1902, originally formed 
the central portion of an altar-piece of which the two wings, representing 
Saints Isidor and Leander, are in the Museum at Valladolid. Friedlander 
suggests that this is the work of a pupil of Memling active in Spain. The 
picture was formerly in the possession of various branches of the Bourbon 
family in Spain and later in the E. Pacully Collection, Nice, sold in Paris 
in 1903, no. 26 of the catalogue. 

ALDUS C. HIGGINS, WORCESTER. 



[27] 



THE MASTER OF THE ST. URSULA LEGEND, active in Bruges, 
1470-90. 

This master, who still remains anonymous, was a contemporary of Hans 
Memling. His works have been recognized and gathered together by Friedlander 
around the artist's principal painting, The Legend of St. Ursula, in the Convent 
of the Black Sisters in Bruges. His paintings reflect some affinity with the earlier 
style of the miniature painters in the meticulous handling of details, mostly 
architectural, with which he encompasses the action of his pictures. Among 
the portraits ascribed to him, the one listed below agrees quite comfortably 
with our knowledge of the painter from the Bruges picture. This is especially 
to be observed in the treatment of the hands, which exist in terms of rounded, 
simplified forms. 

26. PORTRAIT OF A DONOR. 
Oil on panel, 15^£ x lli/£. 
Painted about 1486. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 327, repr.; F. VI, no. 134, pi. LVI. 

The suggestion has been made that this work is the right wing of a 
diptych. It would seem more reasonable to consider it the right wing 
of triptych of which the left wing might have represented the donor's 
wife, the central panel conceivably being the Nativity. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

27. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ANGELS. 
Oil on panel, 203^ x 12y 4 . 

Lit.: F. VI, no. 121b.; Burlington Magazine, May 1927, p. 247. 

Formerly in the Yandolo, Brousse, and Lazzoroni Collections. 
WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

THE MASTER OF THE ST. LUCIA LEGEND, active 1470-90. 

A comparatively rare painter of considerable charm who was active in Bruges 
between 1470 and 1490. Friedlander was the first to recognize an individual 
hand in the picture representing the Legend of St. Lucia in the church of 
St. Jacques at Bruges, a work dated 1480. He identified the artist's style as one 
given to the decoration of foregrounds with plants and leaves, and landscape 
backgrounds arranged in the orderly fashion of a garden. The painter pos- 
sessed a good understanding of architecture, which always deals with buildings 
in Bruges, notably the belfry tower of Notre Dame. He shows a fondness for 
slender, aristocratic figures with long, thin hair descending in easy ripples. 

[28] 



Arms are bent at right angles and fingers are turned at the ends. Color is 
fresh and drapery is handled with a plastic sense rather than with purely linear 
indication. Among other pictures by this master may be mentioned the Virgin 
and Eleven Saints in the Brussels Museum, a St. Catharine in the Museum at 
Pisa, the Madonna in the Rose Garden in the Detroit Institute of Arts and a 
triptych, Pieta, in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. The Master of the Lucia 
Legend stems from the workshop of Memling and Gerard David. 

28. ST. CATHARINE. 

Oil on panel, 26x10. 

Painted about 1480. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 326, repr.; F. VI, no. 157, pi. LXVI. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 



AELBRECHT BOUTS, B. c. 1460-D. 1548. 

Aelbrecht, the second son and pupil of Dirk Bouts, was born and died in 
Louvain. Today he is generally identified as the former Master of the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin. The artist's work reflects strong influences of his more 
talented father and in pictures such as the Nativity of the Antwerp Museum we 
see something of the manner of Hugo van der Goes. 

29. THE HOLY KINSHIP. 

Oil on panel, 2%\/ A x 22i/£. 
Painted about 1520. 

The painting is recognized by Friedlander as a work of Aelbrecht Bouts. 

DURLACHER BROTHERS, NEW YORK. 

30. CHRIST CROWNED WITH THORNS. 

Tempera on panel, 14i/£ x 10 14. 

Lit.: Tresor d'art flamand, Antwerp, 1930, vol. I, p. 99, no. 24. 

BARON COPP£E, BRUSSELS. 

31. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH AN ANGEL. 

Oil on panel, 15i/2 x 11. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Catalogue of Paintings, 1922, repr., p. 28; 

F. Ill, no. 64, pi. LVI. 

Friedlander calls this a fairly late work by the master. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

T291 



GERARD DAVID, B. c. 1460-D. 1523. 

David was born, possibly at Oudewater in Holland, about 1460 and died in 
Bruges. He probably studied first in Haarlem where he was influenced by 
Aelbert Ouwater and Geertgen Tot Sint Jans. After 1483 he worked in Bruges 
and there followed the style of Hans Memling. David was elected a member 
of the Antwerp Guild in 1515. He is unquestionably one of the leaders of 
Flemish painting toward the end of the fifteenth century. 

32. PIETA. 

Oil on panel, 34 x 24i/£. 

Painted about 1492. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 328, repr.; F. VI, no. 163, pi. LXX. 

This important work by Gerard David was early recognized by von 
Bodenhausen 1 as the central panel of a triptych, the wings of which now 
form part of the Philip Lehman Collection, New York. The subjects of 
the wings are: Road to Calvary and the Resurrection. The connection 
of these pictures has generally been accepted with one notable exception,* 
where some doubt is expressed. It has been pointed out that, despite 
the similarity in size, the continuation of the clouds in the sky and the 
landscape are not at all harmonious. 

From close photographic comparisons, the connection, so far as clouds 
are concerned, is perfectly clear. The sky in all three panels is com- 
posed of blue and gray-blue clouds. The movement is in long, horizontal, 
windblown streaks. These extend across the central panel with iden- 
tically billowing puffs to the left of the Cross, and are found extending 
into the wings. The agreement of details in the landscape of the right 
portion of the central panel with those in the right wing are remark- 
ably close. Recent cleaning of the Johnson panel has revealed that the 
vertical rock forms at the left (which have been allowed to remain) are 
not original and were probably added after the triptych was dismembered. 
If this fact is borne in mind, the landscape of the left panel will be seen 
to agree perfectly with that of the central portion. 

It is equally difficult to agree with those who see in the Johnson Pieta 
a picture of composite workmanship. Although it has always been clear 
that the figures and landscape are by David, the picture in its present 
brilliant state suggests nothing of the school work in any of its details. 
The composition of the Pieta which, with minor variations, is found in 
the work of Roger, Bouts and Memling, is to be observed in the small 
panel attributed to Isenbrandt, no. 83 in this exhibition. 
JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

1. Gerard David und seine Schule, 1905, pp. 116-7, pi. 13. 

2. Robert Lehman, The Philip Lehman Collection, 1928, text for pi. LXXXVII. 

[30] 



33. VIRGIN ENTHRONED. 

Oil on panel, %7i/ 2 x2bi/ 8 . 

Painted about 1495. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 329, repr.; F. VI, no. 165b. 

Formerly attributed to Memling, this picture dates from David's second 
period (1490-95) or that following his arrival in Bruges. Attention has 
been called to the close resemblance of this picture to the school work 
of the same subject in the Darmstadt Museum, for which it may have 
served as the original. It has likewise been mentioned that our picture 
is closely related to the earlier Sedano Triptych of the Madonna in the 
Louvre, in which the composition is reversed. 

It is interesting to note that the Madonna sits before a background of 
Italian brocade and that an Oriental rug occupies the foreground. In 
Italian art these familiar adjuncts usually furnish the entire mise-en-scene 
of the religious figures represented and focus attention upon them. In 
Flemish art the early introduction of landscape views, in sections of 
backgrounds, foreshadows the early interest of northern painters in the 
beauty of the living world. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

34. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, 13%xll. 

Painted about 1510. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 666; F. VI, no. 206a. 

Known also by the title La Vierge a la Soupe au Lait, this picture is, 
according to Friedlander, a repetition of a painting of the same subject 
by David in the von Pannwitz Collection in Heemstede. In the latter 
picture a cherry branch painted at some later date covers the wooden 
spoon, which the Christ Child holds in the present painting as well as 
in the other versions of the same subject. 

MUS£ES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

35. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 

Oil on panel, 6}4 x 5i/£. 

Lit.: Catalogue of the Exhibition of Flemish Art, Vienna, 1930; L. Baldass, 

Burlington Magazine, supplement, Dec. 1937, pi. XIV. 

Baldass attributes this portrait to Gerard David. It is probably that of 
the French representative to the Netherlands. 

K. WALTER BACHSTITZ, THE HAGUE. 

[31] 



JEROME BOSCH, B. 1450/62-D. 1516. 

Jerome Bosch, also called Hieronymus Bosch or van Aeken, was born at Herto- 
genbosch (Bois-le-Duc) possibly as early as 1450, and some think not before 
1462. That he enjoyed renown in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is 
shown by citations of Vasari (1550), van Waernewyck (1566), van Mander (1604) 
and Sanderus (1641 and 1669). The painter's reputation in Spain was enor- 
mous as is testified by the works of importance still to be found there. 

The artist was apparently occupied for a time (1494) with cartoons for windows 
in a chapel of the Cathedral of Bois-le-Duc. From 1494 until 1502 he worked 
almost entirely upon the decorations there. It is possible that he then made a 
trip to Spain. 

The master's early works treat religious subject matter in the traditional manner. 
In his later pictures such subjects as the Temptation of St. Anthony are staged 
in the fantasy of a "bad-dream world" inhabited with infernal monsters. These 
are the invention of a vividly realistic and fertile imagination. One senses in 
them a psychological penetration into the basic human emotions. The artist's 
influence on his contemporaries was great, as his numerous imitators bear wit- 
ness. Bosch, and later Bruegel, laid the foundations of genre painting. 

TRIPTYCH. 

36. ADORATION OF THE MAGI (central panel). 

Oil on panel, 271^x211/^. 
Painted before 1500. 

KLEINBERGER GALLERIES, NEW YORK. 

37. ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS (left wing). 

38. ARRIVAL OF THE MAGI (right wing). 

Oil on panel, 13x8i/2 each. 

Painted before 1500. 

Lit.: F. V, no. 70, pi. XLVIII. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory nos. 1275, 1276. 

The three pictures listed above are assembled for the first time since 
their rediscovery in recent times. The Adoration of the Magi came into 
the possession of the present owner in 1929 and confirmed Friedlander's 
prior suspicion that the Johnson panels had formed two wings of a lost 

[32] 



Adoration by Bosch. The entire composition had previously been cited by 
this scholar in the form of a copy owned in the collection of the Marquis 
Casa Torres of Madrid. 

The wings of the copy, as well as the Adoration of the Magi here 
included, have greater height than the Johnson panels. These show evi- 
dence of having been reduced which explains the discrepancy in size (see 
diagram below). 

The absence of Bosch's penetrating characterization has doubtless 
prompted the thought that these are early works. 




39. ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 

Oil on panel, 29x21i/£. 

Painted before 1500. 

Lit.: F. V, no. 67, pi. XLIV. 

The subject of the Epiphany was repeated at least three times by Bosch. 
Two other known examples are: the one in the Prado (of which no. 354 
in the Johnson Collection is an old copy) and the one in The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, B65— 1. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory no. 1321. 

[33] 



40. GARDEN OF PARADISE. 

Oil on panel, 105^ x 15!% 6 . 

Painted before 1500. 

Lit.: Art Institute of Chicago, Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4; Jeroen Bosch-Ten- 

toonstellung, Rotterdam, 1936, no. 49. 

Friedlander attributes the picture to Bosch and "knows no other similar 
composition". 

ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO. 

41. MOCKING OF CHRIST. 

Oil on panel, 20x21. 

Painted after 1500. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 352, repr.; F. V, no. 78, pi. LII. 

This powerful painting by Bosch is not only a true work of the master's 
art but an excellent example of the new perception which Bosch intro- 
duced into painting. Here is depicted blind hatred, which impels the 
tormentors of Christ and gives to their countenances the appearance of 
devils. 

Recent examination and work on the painting indicate that the picture 
originally may have known another format, a vertical rectangle rather 
than the present square. The composition, almost equally divided into 
three horizontal bands, combined with the fact that the foreground 
figures seem cut off too abruptly, would suggest this. The possibility is 
at least made conceivable by the fact that the painted surface along the 
lower side extends to the extreme edge of the picture. In its present 
state the panel has been widened by % 2 °f an mcn along a line con- 
tinuing the old central column shown in all previously published repro- 
ductions. It was found that the panel had been separated along this 
line and planed down to effect a smooth gluing surface. The figures along 
the cleavage, consequently, failed to register properly. Some of this 
damage was covered by the addition of the third column now removed. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

42. CALVARY. 

Oil on panel, 27^x23^. 

Lit.: Jeroen Bosch-Tentoonstellung, Rotterdam, 1936, no. 49a. 

FRANCHOMME COLLECTION, BRUSSELS. 



[34] 



QUENTIN MASSYS, B. 1466-D. 1530. 

Massys was born in Louvain and died in Antwerp. Elected a member of the 
Antwerp Guild in 1491, the artist was a painter of religious and genre subjects 
and the designer of cartoons for tapestries. His early work was doubtless done 
in Louvain, whence he moved to Antwerp. It is also quite possible that he spent 
some time in Italy. One can recognize in Massys' religious subjects the influence 
of Roger van der Weyden and of Dirk Bouts. His landscapes relate him to the 
art of Joachim Patinir. The artist is considered one of the leaders of Flemish 
painting in the early part of the sixteenth century. 

43. MARIA EGYPTIACA. 

44. MARY MAGDALENE. 

Oil on panel, 12x8 each. 

Lit.: J. II, nos. 366, 367, both repr.; F. VII, no. 7. 

These two wings of a triptych first appeared in the Exhibition at Bruges 
in 1902. They were ascribed by Hulin de Loo to the school of Quentin 
Massys and by Friedlander to the master himself. Despite mistreatment 
they are prime works of great dignity. The Magdalene is to be compared 
with the picture by Massys in the Musee Mayer van den Bergh at 
Antwerp. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

45. THE FOOL. 

Oil on panel, 23 1/ 2 x 181/^. 
Painted about 1510. 

The inscription, Mondeken toe, which appears on the painting is an old 
Flemish proverb meaning "Shut your mouth". The word Mot painted 
in a different color and script was apparently added at a later time. The 
Fool seems to be a satire on the gossiping world and bears marked traces 
of the influence of Jerome Bosch. A drawing by Verveek closely allied 
in spirit with this picture is owned by the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. 

JULIUS S. HELD, NEW YORK. 

46. REST ON THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 32]/ 2 x 31. 

Painted about 1512. 

Lit.: F. VII, no. 4a, pi. XI; F. XIV, p. 108; F. Winkler, Pantheon, vol. VI, 

p. 345. 

[35] 



This panel originally formed part of a large polyptych commissioned 
about 1512 by the Convent of Madre de Deus in Lisbon. The subject of 
the altar-piece was probably the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin. The central 
panel, representing the Mater Dolorosa, together with five others, is in 
the National Museum at Lisbon. 
WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

47. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 
Oil on panel, 18i/£x 13^. 
Painted between 1510 and 1520. 
Lit.: F. VII, no. 121. 

SCHAEFFER GALLERIES, NEW YORK. 

THE MASTER WITH THE EMBROIDERED FOLIAGE, working 
in 1500. 

An anonymous master who doubtless worked in Brussels in the neighborhood of 
1500. His works have been identified and assembled by Friedlander under the 
above mentioned appellation, which derives from the artist's love for large areas 
of rich foliage which, in treatment, resemble the embossing of embroidery. 
Artistically our painter seems related to Roger van der Weyden. This is 
especially to be noted in the handling of figures. 

48. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ANGELS. 
Panel transposed to canvas, 40i/2 x 29 14. 
Painted about 1490-1500. 

Lit.: F. IV, no. 84b; Cinq siecles d 'art fiamand, Brussels, 1935, no. 62, repr. 
pi. XXXI. 

Friedlander mentions three other versions of this work. One of these 
(ex-Oppenheimer Collection 1 ) shows the Virgin and Child in similar 
pose but sitting in a landscape quite different from the one in the 
present picture. The brocade background and the angels are also missing. 
Another version is no. 225 in the Museum at Lille, France. The picture 
should also be compared with the Johnson picture, no. 49, by the same 
hand. 
MME. VAN GELDER, BRUSSELS. 

49. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 
Oil on panel, 31x33. 
Painted about 1490-1500. 
Lit.: F. IV, no. 85, pi. LXIV. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory no. 2518. 



1. See F. IV, pi. LXIII. 

[36] 



BRUGES MASTER, active about 1515. 

50. SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST. 

Tempera on vellum, sixty-four miniatures, 2s/ 4 x 2% 2 each. 

Painted about 1515. 

Lit.: Catalogue . . . Collection de Charles Stein, Paris, 1886, no. 241, 

repr.; A. Darcel, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, vol. XXXIII, 1886, p. 132; 

F. Winkler, Die flamische Buchmalerei des XV und XVI Jahrhunderts, 1925, 

p. 140, repr.; C. de Ricci, Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts 

in the United States and Canada, 1935, vol. I, p. 809, no. 324. 

Painted in Bruges in the neighborhood of 1515, this series of sixty-four 
miniatures is the work of an artist following in the tradition of Memling. 1 
The scenes depict the life of Christ beginning with the meeting of 
Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate and concluding with the Last 
Judgment and Resurrection. 

WALTERS ART GALLERY, BALTIMORE. 

BERNARD VAN ORLEY, B. c. 1495-D. 1542. 

Van Orley, or d'Orley, was born in Brussels about 1495 and died there on the 
sixth of January, 1542. It is thought that the artist was the pupil of his father, 
one Valentin van Orley (1466-1532). It has been supposed that Bernard went 
to Italy in 1509 where he may have had direct dealings with Raphael on one or 
two occasions. Others believe that the painter's knowledge of Italian art was 
acquired in Brussels from Raphael cartoons which were sent to be woven in the 
atelier of Pieter van Aelst. 

In 1518 van Orley was made court painter by Margaret of Austria. In 1520 
Albrecht Diirer sojourned in Brussels and was entertained at a banquet organ- 
ized by this artist. In 1521 the great German master again visited Brussels and, 
it is said, painted the portrait of the younger artist. 

Van Orley's work consists of religious subjects and a goodly number of portraits. 
The latter possess solidity of form achieved through the intelligent use of 
Italian chiaroscuro. The religious works freely combine baroque ideas, cer- 
tainly of Italian origin, with traditionally Flemish methods. In addition to 
painting, van Orley was a clever designer and engaged in producing cartoons 
for tapestries and stained glass. 



1. Some of the miniatures are reproduced by Winkler among the works of Simon Bening. He 
attributes them to the collection of the King of Spain but is doubtless referring to the set 
here shown. 



[37] 



51. PORTRAIT OF DR. ZELLE. 
Oil on panel, 15% x 12%. 

Signed and dated in the top border of the tapestry, BERNARDUS 

D'ORLEII. FACIEBAT. BRUXEL. MDXIX. AETAT. 28. 

Painted in 1519. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no 334; F. VIII, no. 144. 

Dr. Zelle was van Orley's neighbor and good friend, as symbolized by the 
pairs of clasped hands represented in the embroidered cloth behind the 
figure. 

MUSfiES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

52. ADORATION OF THE MAGI. 

Oil on panel, 123/4 x 17%. 

Painted about 1522. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 400, repr.; F. VIII, no. 105. 

Attributed by Valentiner as an early work of the artist. 
JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

53. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, 8^ x 6s/ 4 . 
Painted in 1518. 

BARON GENDEBIEN, BRUSSELS. 



JAN GOSSART, called MABUSE, B. c. 1472-D. 1541. 

Jan Gossart was born in the small town of Maubeuge and by some is thought 
to have been the son of a book binder named Simon. It is not certain with 
whom the young painter studied although Memling has been suggested as his 
possible master. 

Gossart is thought to have been admitted to the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp 
in 1503. He then had the fortune to attract the patronage of Philip of Bur- 
gundy, bastard son of Philip the Good. Among other artists working for Philip 
at that time was the enigmatic Jacopo dei Barbari, an Italian master who, like 
Antonello, was a connecting link between the art of the north and of Italy. 

In 1508 Jan Gossart formed part of a brilliant company, including Jacopo, to 
visit Italy in the company of Philip. He continued under Philip's patronage 
until the Duke died in 1524. He worked for his patron in Middleburg and 
Utrecht. Gossart's works include religious and mythological subjects as well as 
portraits of great distinction. The stamp of Italian art is everywhere apparent 
in the production which followed his visit to Italy. 

[38] 



54. PORTRAIT OF A MERCHANT. 

Oil on panel, 25x21. 
Lit.: F. VIII, no. 73. 

The merchant sits at his accounts surrounded with the implements of 
his calling. On the index finger of the left hand is a ring bearing the 
initials IS. Behind are files of papers, the left one marked: Alrehande 
missiven, the other: Alrehande minuten. The picture was first shown 
at Bruges in 1902, no. 242, as the work of Marinus van Reymersvaels. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory no. 2051. 

55. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, 211/4 x 16i/£. 

Painted about 1520. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 390, repr.; F. VIII, no. 35a. 

Valentiner has pointed out that this composition was copied by Hans 
Baldung Grien in a painting dated 1530 and now in the Germanisches 
Museum at Nuremberg. He has also noted a similar work, with a differ- 
ent background, in the Prado and a portrait in the National Gallery, 
London, in which the same architectural background has been used. 
Friedlander includes the picture in his Mabuse list as a copy. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

56. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG AUSTRIAN PRINCESS. 

Oil on panel, 13^ x 10i/£. 

Lit.: Flemish Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 192. 

MME. HERNALSTEENS VAN DER WAARDEN, BRUSSELS. 

57. PORTRAIT OF JEAN DE CARONDELET. 

Tempera on panel, 23 14 x 32 14. 

This is thought to be the last of the four portraits of Carondelet by 
Gossart. He was also painted once by Bernard van Orley and once by 
Jan Vermeyen. Friedlander is inclined to attribute the portrait of 
Carondelet in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the head of which 
agrees with that of the present picture, to Jan Vermeyen. 

M. VAN DER VEKEN, BRUSSELS. 



[39] 



JOACHIM PATINIR, B. 1485-D. 1524. 

Patinir was born at Dinant and died in Antwerp. He doubtless worked in 
Bruges before going to Antwerp where he was a member of the Guild in 1515. 
While Patinir cannot be said to have introduced landscape painting, he was 
the first painter to devote major attention to it rather than to use it incidentally 
as had his predecessors. Patinir 's religious subjects are frequently placed in a 
landscape setting which transcends in importance the religious content of the 
picture. In some instances the figures in these pictures were painted by others 
and Patinir executed only the landscape. 

58. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 26 x 33. 

Painted about 1500-15. 

Lit.: F. XI, no. 150; L. Baldass, Vienna Jahrbuch, vol. 34, p. 124, repr. fig. 18. 

Friedlander gives the figures to Isenbrandt, noting that they are a free 
copy from Durer's woodcut in the series of the Life of Mary (note the 
monogram AD on the stone). The landscape, according to Friedlander, 
is in the manner of Patinir. 

ROBERT T. FRANCIS, NEW YORK. 

59. ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN. 

Oil on panel, 23 x 22. 

Painted about 1519. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 378, repr.; F. IX, no. 226. 

Although the main subject of this panel is the Assumption, it relates in 
its details the principal events in the lives of Christ and the Virgin. In 
the middle distance, to the left, we see the cortege of the Virgin and, in 
the center, the cave in which she was buried. The eleven apostles and 
Matthias appear in the foreground— the Virgin, encircled with angels, 
is received above by the Trinity. The action is laid in a vast landscape. 
The roundels at the top represent the Nativity and the Resurrection. In 
grisaille between these appear, in order from the left, St. Matthew, the 
Adoration, the Ascension and St. Luke. 

The arms in the foreground have been identified as those of Lucas Rehm 
of Augsburg who was living in Antwerp until 1520 when he went to 
Cologne. The motto on the ribbon ISTZ GVOT GEDS GO has been 
interpreted // it goes well, it is given to God. Valentiner assigns the 
figures to one of the Antwerp mannerists. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

[40] 



60. REST ON THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 171/^x223^. 

Painted about 1521. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 377, repr.; F. IX, no. 234. 

This is one of the master's most delightful and imaginative representa- 
tions of holy legend. The grove of sycamore trees in which the Virgin 
rested, the spring which appeared to refresh the travelers, and the 
miraculous field of wheat which helped to deceive their pursuers, furnish 
elements in a vernal landscape invented by the artist. A group of soldiers 
and small figures in the distance suggest the massacre, and the broken 
column at the left, the fallen idols of Egypt. Patinir has thus related fully 
the theme of the Flight but has considered its main actors as secondary 
in importance to the landscape. Didactic though the picture is, its author 
apparently was mainly concerned with the color and movement of nature. 
Patinir thus carried painting one step further in its development. The 
figures in this case are entirely from the artist's own hand. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

61. REST ON THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 131/4 x 914. 

Lit.: Handbook of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1926, p. 6, repr.; F. IX, 

no. 228. 

Friedlander believes the Virgin in this picture to have been painted by 
another hand. The picture should be compared with the similar composi- 
tion and subject in the Johnson Collection, no. 60 in this catalogue. 

MINNEAPOLIS INSTITUTE OF ARTS. 



MASTER OF THE ST. BARBARA LEGEND, active 1470-1500. 

An anonymous painter who was working in Brussels between 1470 and 1500, 
this artist belongs to the second generation of Roger van der Weyden's followers. 
He forms the connecting link between Roger and Bernard van Orley. Hulin de 
Loo has suggested that our painter was possibly a pupil or imitator of Vrancke 
van der Stockt. 

62. THE LEGEND OF ST. BARBARA. 

Oil on panel, 281/4 x 49. 

Painted about 1475. 

Lit.: F. IV, no. 57, pi. LI; F., "Der Meister der Barbara Legende", Jahrbuch 

filr Kunstwissenschaft, 1924, p. 20. 

[41] 



This is the central panel of a triptych of which the other remaining por- 
tion, the left wing, is in the Confrerie du Saint-Sang at Bruges. A drawing 
for the left half of this painting is in the Pierpont Morgan Library and 
the drawing for the right half is in the Louvre. 

JACQUES SELIGMANN AND COMPANY. 



JOOS VAN GLEVE, the elder, active 1507-1540. 

Joos van Cleve, the elder, lived in Antwerp between 1507 and 1540. His works 
were formerly designated under the name of Master of the Death of the Virgin, 
so called after the altar-piece depicting this subject in the Alt Pinakothek, 
Munich. His style was formed under the influence of Quentin Massys and 
Joachim Patinir. In 1511 he became a master in the Guild of Antwerp where he 
principally worked although he is thought to have spent some short time in 
Cologne. 

63. DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. 

Oil on panel, 44i/£ x 49^. 

Painted about 1518. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 373, repr.; F. IX, no. 31. 

This is one of a group of old copies of Roger van der Weyden's Descent 
from the Cross painted about 1435 for the archers of Louvain and placed 
in the church of Notre-Dame-Hors-les-Murs in Louvain. This picture was 
given by its owners to Mary of Hungary and later was presented to the 
King of Spain. Before it was sent, according to van Mander, a copy was 
made for Louvain by Michel Cocxie. This is probably one of the two 
copies now owned by the Prado. Other copies of Roger's celebrated work 
are to be found in the Kaiser Friedrich-Museum, Berlin, St. Peter's 
Church, Louvain, and in the Bridgewater Collection, London. 

The Johnson copy was first mentioned by Waagen in 1857 and correctly 
attributed by him to the then Master of the Death of the Virgin. It has 
been taken over into the corpus of works attributed to Joos. Our copy 
is fairly close in so far as the figures are concerned but the gold back- 
ground of the original has been replaced by a landscape. Additional 
foreground has likewise been introduced. The picture was purchased 
from the collection of Lord Heytesbury who also owned the Johnson 
van Eyck. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

[42] 



64. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN. (See cover) 
Oil on panel, 10x85^. 

Painted about 1521-24. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 375, repr.; L. Baldass, Joos van Cleve, Der Meister des Todes 

Maria, 1925, p. 27, pi. no. 64. 

Originally included by Friedlander in the works assembled under the 
designation Master of the Death of the Virgin, this portrait has been 
added to the list of works by Joos van Cleve since the master was identi- 
fied by Baldass. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

65. CHRIST ON THE CROSS WITH THE VIRGIN AND ST. JOHN. 

Oil on panel, 3H/£ x 25. 

Painted about 1525. 

Lit.: L. Baldass, Joos van Cleve, 1925, pp. 25-6; F. IX, p. 130, no. XXX. 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON. 

66. CRUCIFIXION. 

Oil on panel, 12^xl0i4. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 374, repr.; F. IX, no. 11a. 

This small picture is associated with two other versions by the same 
master, one in the Naples Museum, no. 576, and the other in the Alt 
Pinakothek, Munich, no. 58. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

67. FRANCIS I (1494-1547). 
Oil on panel, 28 x 23. 
Painted about 1530. 

Lit.: J. Ill, no. 769, repr.; F. IX, no. 72, pi. XLII. 

Formerly in the collection of Lucien Bonaparte (1812) and attributed in 
the catalogue of that collection to Holbein (engraved by Fontana) the 
picture next passed through the collection of the Earl of Dudley, London, 
under the name of Clouet. It is one of a group of seven portraits of 
Francis I, each varying from the other in minor details. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

68. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 
Oil on panel, 323^ x 2614. 

Lit.: Flemish Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 254; Tresor d'art 

flamand, Antwerp, 1930, vol. I, no. 71. 

This painting, together with its pendant, no. 69, is attributed to the Dutch 
painter Jan van Scorel by Hulin de Loo, who notes that the treatment of 
the hands is especially typical of van Scorel. 

MME. HERNALSTEENS VAN DER WAARDEN, BRUSSELS. 

[43] 



69. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN. 

Oil on panel, 3234 x 261^. 

Dated 1530. 

Lit.: Flemish Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 256; Tresor d'art 

flamand, Antwerp, 1930, vol. I, no. 72. 

Like the preceding picture this is attributed to van Scorel by Hulin 
de Loo. 

MME. HERNALSTEENS VAN DER WAARDEN, BRUSSELS. 

70. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 

Oil on panel, 17 x II34. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Catalogue of Paintings, 1922, p. 31, repr. 

The picture was formerly in the Doetsch Collection, sold at London, 
1895, catalogue no. 190, under the name of Gossart. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 



JAN PROVOST, B. 1462-D. 1529. 

Jan Provost was born at Mons. His master is not known but he apparently 
came under the influence of Gerard David and Quentin Massys. In 1493 he 
was received as a master in the Antwerp Guild but in 1494 he had become a 
citizen of Bruges. He then appears to have gone to Valenciennes where he 
enrolled as a citizen in 1498. Here, it is believed, he married his first wife, the 
widow of Simon Marmion. Jan Provost forms one of the links between Bruges 
and Antwerp in the early sixteenth century. 

71. TWO WINGS OF A TRIPTYCH. 

Oil on panel, 22 14 x 8 each, arched top. 
Lit.: J. II, no. 355, repr.; F. IX, no. 134. 

The four panels here assembled as a polyp tych were formed by sawing 
through two wings of a triptych. The left wing represents St. Andrew 
with the donor and his two sons. On the rear of this panel is the Virgin 
painted in grisaille. The right wing shows St. Catharine with the donor's 
wife and two daughters. The reverse represents the angel of the annunci- 
ation. The picture has been previously attributed to Memling and to the 
school of the Maitre de Moulins. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

[44] 



72. AVARICE AND DEATH. 

Oil on panel, 46i/£ x 303^ each. 

Lit.: Musee Communal, Bruges, no. 39; F. IX, no. 133. 

These two wings of an altar-piece were originally the outer sides of the 
panels representing a donor and St. Godelva, nos. 32 and 33 of the Bruges 
Museum. Avarice holds in his hands an inscription: Ic, Jan Lanckaert. 
Friedlander notes the similarity between these panels and the shutters of 
the Windsor Castle altar-piece, the Madonna Enthroned. 

MUS£E COMMUNAL, BRUGES. 



JAN PROVOST (?) 

73. PORTRAIT OF CLAUDE DE TOULONGEON AND HIS PATRON, 
ST. CLAUDE. 

Oil on panel, 41 x 30i/£. 

Painted about 1470-81. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Catalogue of Paintings, 1922, p. 25, repr., p. 24; 

A. van de Put, "Some Golden Fleece Portraits", Burlington Magazine, vol. 42, 

p. 297. 

The panel was originally arched at the top, indicating that it must have 
formed, together with its companion picture representing the wife of 
Claude, Guillemette de Vergy, and a female patron saint, no. 74, a diptych 
or possibly part of a triptych. This is further suggested by the remains 
of a half-length bearded saint in grisaille on the back of the panel, facing 
right. 

Claude de Toulongeon, Lord of La Bastie, a Burgundian of the Franche- 
Comte, was Chamberlain to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. He was 
knighted in 1453, elected to the Golden Fleece in 1481, and died between 
1500 and 1505. He married in 1470. Friedlander believes that the master 
who painted this picture and its companion piece, no. 74, was probably 
a follower of Simon Marmion, who worked between 1450-1489 around 
Amiens and Valenciennes and was connected with the Burgundian Court. 
See Friedlander "The Bruges Master of Saint Augustine" in Art in 
America, vol. XXV, no. 2, April 1937, pp. 47-54. Attention has also been 
called to the similarity in style between these pictures and a signed por- 
trait by Jacobus de Punder (Jacques de Poindre) in the Walters Art 
Gallery. Cf. articles by Julius S. Held and Wolfgang Stechow in The 
Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, vol. I, 1938, pp. 45-53. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 



[45] 



74. PORTRAIT OF GUILLEMETTE DE VERGY AND HER PATRON 
SAINT. 

Oil on panel, 40^x31. 

Painted about 1470-81. 

Lit.: Rhode Island School of Design, Bulletin, vol. XI, no. 4; A. van de Put, 

"Some Golden Fleece Portraits", Burlington Magazine, vol. 43, p. 297. 

A companion picture to no. 73. On the back of the panel is a half length 
figure of St. Martin of Tours. 

MUSEUM OF THE RHODE ISLAND SCHOOL OF DESIGN, PROVIDENCE. 



JAN VAN HEMESSEN, B. c. 1500-D. c. 1563. 

Born at Hemixen near Antwerp, this artist is principally identified with 
Antwerp. In 1551 he went to Haarlem where he died about 1563. 

75. WOMAN PLAYING A CLAVICHORD. 

Oil on panel, 26i^x2l34. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Bulletin, Jan. 1921, vol. XI, no. 4, p. 71; 
F. XII, no. 220, pi. XLIII; Exposition de la Toison d'Or, Bruges, 1907, 
no. 69. 

Friedlander suggests that the figure may be intended to represent Mary 
Magdalene and assigns the picture to the early period of the artist's work. 
However it has been considered, since it was acquired in Spain by 
Monsieur Charles L. Cardon of Brussels, as a portrait of Eleanor of 
Austria (Portugal), a sister of the Emperor Charles V. Cf. Tremayne, 
Margaret of Austria, First Governess of the Netherlands, p. 75. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 



MASTER OF THE HALF LENGTH FEMALE FIGURES, active 
1530-1540. 

An anonymous Antwerp master whose style was possibly formed in the atelier 
of van Orley. His productions also bear some affinity with the work of 
Ambrosius Benson and Adriaen Isenbrandt. His appelation derives from his 
numerous paintings showing half length female figures playing the lute, reading, 
or posed to represent Mary Magdalene. 



[46] 



76. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG LADY. 

Oil on panel, 18 x \2\/ A . 

Painted about 1530. 

Lit.: Flemish Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 213. 

The painting was formerly ascribed to the Master of the Virgin with the 

Parrot. 

MME. HERNALSTEENS VAN DER WAARDEN, BRUSSELS. 

77. REPOSE ON THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 33 x 23 14, rounded top. 

Painted about 1530-35. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 389, repr.; F. XII, no. 78. 

This picture is considered one of the best representations of the work 
of this master. There is a similar composition in the National Gallery, 
London, no. 720. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

78. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on panel, 18i/£ x 15^. 

Lit.: Art in America, vol. VII, p. 124, repr. 

Although formerly attributed to Mabuse, Friedlander has ascribed this 
picture (verbally) to the Master of the Half Length Female Figures. 

FRANK C. SMITH, JR., WORCESTER. 

AMBROSIUS BENSON, active 1519-1550. 

Ambrosius Benson is thought to have been born in Lombardy at an undeter- 
mined date. He died prior to August 4, 1550. Hulin de Loo has assembled 
the works of this artist in reference to the Holy Family in the Germanisches 
Museum at Nuremberg, a work signed A. B. and bearing the date 1527. Benson 
worked principally in Bruges and possibly traveled in Spain. His art was formed 
under the influence of Gerard David. He painted religious subjects, popular 
scenes and portraits. 

79. TRIPTYCH. 

Oil on panel, center panel 17i/2 x 13i/2) each wing 153/£ x 5. 

Painted about 1520. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 359, repr.; F. XI, no. 238. 

The central panel represents St. Jerome. While the left wing is an ideal 
representation of St. Peter, the right shutter is doubtless the portrait of 
the donor holding the attribute of St. Paul— a sword. It has been pointed 

[47] 



out that the right hand of the donor, once crossed with the left, has been 
changed so as to grasp the sword. Friedlander has suggested that the 
portrait is that of Geronimo Diodati. A portrait of Diodati by Benson is 
known (see F. XI, no. 280). 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

80. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 

Oil on panel, 201/4 x 18. 

Dated, top center, 1525. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 360, repr.; F. XI, no. 286, pi. XC. 

This portrait is somewhat later than the preceding painting. The affinity 
of these two pictures with one another and with the production of Benson 
is attested by the same solidity of modeling and identical attention 
to the anatomy of hands with long expressive fingers. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

ADRIAEN ISENBRANDT, D. 1551. 

Isenbrandt, one of the most prolific artists of the early sixteenth century, was a 
pupil and close follower of Gerard David. He is mentioned as having been a 
citizen of Bruges in 1510 and is known to have worked in that city until his 
death in 1551. The master, formerly confused with Jan Mostaert, was plausibly 
identified by Hulin de Loo. 

81. ADORATION. 

Oil on panel, 30 x 22. 
Lit.: F. XIV, p. 125. 

ARNOLD SELIGMANN, REY AND COMPANY, NEW YORK. 

82. PIETA. 

Oil on panel, 103/£ x 3 14. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 358, repr.; F. XI, no. 134. 

This picture shows Isenbrandt still clinging to the setting made familiar 
by the works of Gerard David but possessed of a definite personality. 
This is especially to be noted in the soft rendering of form as opposed to 
the crisp delineation of the painter's master. The composition of this 
wing of a triptych was used by Isenbrandt at least three times. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 



[48] 



ADRIAEN ISENBRANDT(P) 

83. CHRIST ON THE CROSS WITH THE VIRGIN, ST. JOHN AND 
MARY MAGDALENE. 

Oil on panel, \7i/ 2 x 10i/£. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, News Bulletin, Dec. 1935, vol. I, no. 3. 

This picture was acquired in 1934 from the collection of Don Lorenzo 
Albarran in Madrid. It is said to have come from a convent in Valencia. 
The composition is a type frequently to be found in the paintings of the 
same subject by Gerard David, to whom this picture was attributed from 
a photograph by Hulin de Loo. The similarity of details between this 
picture and the Pieta by David in the Johnson Collection, no. 32, sug- 
gests that it was painted by a studio follower of David rather than by 
Isenbrandt himself. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

84. VIRGIN AND SAINTS. 

Oil on panel, I614 x 12^. 

Lit.: Fogg Art Museum, Notes. 

The Virgin is surrounded by four saints, probably the four Virgin 
Patronesses, St. Ursula, St. Catharine of Alexandria, St. Barbara and 
St. Margaret. 

FOGG ART MUSEUM, CAMBRIDGE. 



MASTER OF THE MAGDALENE LEGEND, active 1510-1520. 

Considerable divergence of opinion exists over the identity of this anonymous 
painter. Winkler suggests that in 1500 he was already an old man and working 
in the manner of Roger van der Weyden. Hulin de Loo advances the theory 
that he may be identified with a son of Vrancke van der Stockt named Bernard. 
Bernard van der Stockt (B. 1460P-D. 1538) worked in Brussels most actively 
between 1510 and 1520. 

85. MARY MAGDALENE PREACHING. 

Oil on panel, 40x25. 

Painted about 1518. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 402, repr.; F. XII, no. lOd. 

This panel formed the right wing of a triptych, the subject of which 
Friedlander has used to designate the artist. This and the left wing of 
the triptych, Mary Magdalene Hunting, were first exhibited at the New 
Gallery, London, in 1900, and at Bruges in 1902. Several of the panels 

[49] 



from the original triptych, including the Johnson picture, were 
assembled in the exhibition Cinq Siecles d'Art held in Brussels in 1935. 
The panels of the triptych, which has been reconstructed by Jeanne 
Tombu, are: 

Central panel 

1. Feast in the House of Simon, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. 

2. Raising of Lazarus, Museum of Fine Arts, Copenhagen. 
Left wing, inside 

3. Mary Magdalene Hunting, ex-Figdor Collection, Vienna. 
Left wing, outside 

4. Christ appearing to Magdalene, Museum, Schwerin. 
Right wing, inside 

5. Mary Magdalene Preaching, Johnson Collection. 
Right wing, outside 

6. Christ appearing to Magdalene, Museum, Schwerin. 
JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

THE MASTER OF FRANKFORT, B. 1460-D. 1515/20. 

This anonymous master is connected with Frankfort-on-the-Main only through 
two altar-pieces painted for that city. One, a St. Anna formerly in the 
Dominican Church there, is now in the city's Museum. The other, a Crucifixion, 
is at present in the Staedel Institute. Although a painter of no great originality, 
the artist was a good performer and evidently copied works or made variants 
of them for provincial churches. His paintings, somewhat related to Joos 
van Cleve's in color, consisted mostly of religious subjects, with an occasional 
portrait. The artist was established in Antwerp from 1491 until 1515. 

86. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ANGEL. 

Oil on panel, 33i/ 2 x 26. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Catalogue of Paintings, 1922, p. 51, repr. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

JAN MOSTAERT, B. c. 1475-D. 1555/6. 

This painter was born in Haarlem where he was a pupil of Jacob Janszen and 
where he worked between 1500 and 1549. He was court painter to Margaretta of 
Parma, Governess of the Netherlands. Mostaert was a painter of religious sub- 
jects and of portraits. His manner is characterized by simplicity, dignity and 
sound composition. 

[50] 



87. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 

Oil on panel, 35 x 22. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 538; F. X, no. 35. 

MUS£ES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

88. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 
Oil on panel, 18 x 123^. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Bulletin, July 1922, vol. XIII, no. 2, p. 29; 
F. X, no. 33, pi. XIV. 

The picture was formerly in the Hoech Collection, Munich, and in the 

sale catalogue, no. 94, is listed as Holbein. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

HENRI MET DE BLES, B. c. 1485-D. 1550. 

This enigmatic painter, also known as Herri met de Blesse, was born at 
Bouvignes near Dinant. Evidently his name was only a sobriquet given to him 
because of a large lock of white hair. In France he was known as Henri a la 
Houppe and in Italy as Civetta— this because he apparently signed his works 
at times with a small owl in the details of his landscapes. 
The painter evidently traveled in Italy where his works were extremely popular. 
Upon his return he may have established himself at Malines although there is 
every possibility that he worked at Antwerp. 

The attribution of works to this master has been a much vexed question. 
Because of his characteristics described by van Mander, pictures of all descrip- 
tions have been assembled as his or as belonging to the so-called Henri met de 
Bles group. Fanciful landscapes with diminutive figures or religious scenes 
staged in an architecture of fantasy, indeed all variety of mannerisms, have been 
associated with these painters. Recently there has been a tendency to greatly 
reduce the number of works attributed to the master himself and to group 
others under the designation of the Antwerp Mannerists. 

89. CALVARY. 

Tempera on panel, 22%x31i/£. 

Painted about 1525. 

Lit.: F. XIII, no. 67c; Tresor d'art flamand, Antwerp, 1930, no. 17. 

According to Friedlander, the landscape was painted by met de Bles while 
the figures are in the style of the so-called Brunswick Monogrammist. 
The picture is one of four variants of the subject. 

M. STUYCK DEL BRUYERE, ANTWERP. 

[51] 



MASTER OF THE MANSI MAGDALENE, active 1515-1525. 

The name given this anonymous master by Friedlander, who suggests that he 
may perhaps be identified with a certain Williem Muelenbroec, who was a 
pupil of Massys in 1501, is derived from a painting of the Magdalen formerly 
in the Mansi Collection at Lucca and now in the Kaiser Friedrich-Museum, 
Berlin. The influence of Durer prints and of Patinir in the landscape is appar- 
ent in the pictures grouped under the master's name. Characteristic of the 
work of this painter are certain stylistic peculiarities, notably the rigid frontality 
of the figures, the dark, almost monochrome coloring, and the harmonious 
relation between the figures and the landscape background. 

90. SALVATOR MUNDI. 

Oil on panel, 28x21. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 388, repr.; F. VII, no. 93, pi. LXIV. 

The small owl which appears poised on a bare tree over Christ's right 
shoulder originally caused this picture to be attributed to Henri met de 
Bles, a follower of Joachim Patinir. According to Carel van Mander, 
the master signed in this manner. The picture has been included by 
Friedlander in the corpus of works associated with the painter of the 
Mansi Magdalene. The right portion of the landscape background is 
copied in reverse from Durer's print of St. Eustachius done between 1500 
and 1503. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 



THE MASTER FROM HOOGSTRATEN, active 1500-1530. 

This artist received his name from some panels now preserved in the Antwerp 
Museum but originally painted for the Hoogstraten Convent. The artist doubt- 
less worked in Antwerp where he was active between 1500 and 1530. 

91. SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST. 

Oil on panel, 12 x 18. 
Lit.: F. VII, no. 105. 

The central panel of this miniature altar-piece represents the Adoration 
of the Magi. The smaller sections are devoted to the Annunciation, Cir- 
cumcision and Flight into Egypt. The picture was formerly attributed 
to Henri met de Bles. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION, inventory no. 60. 

[52] 



92. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH ST. CATHARINE. 

Oil on panel, 31i4 x27l/£. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 371, repr.; F. VII, no. 122, pi. LXXVIII. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

MASTER OF THE GROOTE ADORATION, active early sixteenth 
century. 

An anonymous master working in Antwerp in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. Friedlander assembles under this name a group of pictures which 
are stylistically related to an altar-piece of the Adoration of the Magi in the 
von Groote Collection at Kitzburg. Certain mannerisms: stiffly posed figures 
with draperies falling in rather sharply broken folds, faces with harshly accen- 
tuated cheek bones and, in many cases, open mouths revealing the teeth, and 
long pointed fingers, generally pressed together at the tips, are characteristic 
of the master. 

93. THE WAY TO CALVARY. 

Oil on panel, 39x313^. 

Painted about 1520. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 384, repr.; F. XI, no. 38. 

The present attribution is that of Friedlander. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

PIETER BRUEGEL, the elder, B. c. 1525-D. 1569. 

Pieter Bruegel, the elder, was born at Bruegel near Breda. He worked first in 
Antwerp where he became a member of the Antwerp Guild in 1551. He was 
doubtless a pupil of Pieter Coeck van Aalst whose daughter he married in 
1563. After this date he settled in Brussels. 

Bruegel traveled in Italy in 1552 and 1553. He returned with numerous draw- 
ings and sketches in which his interest in landscape and the figure is apparent. 
These he subsequently used freely in his pictures which exerted a great influence 
upon the development of genre painting. 

For a time Bruegel was surnamed le Drole, doubtless an allusion to the artist's 
choice of subject matter which so often deals with peasant life in its most 
boisterous form of self-expression. These profound human documents, however, 
proclaim the artist's genius as one almost unique in the history of painting. 
Bruegel's ability to epitomize the drama of human existence derives from his 
encyclopedic knowledge of human nature. He is a student of gesture and 
rhythm, by means of which he vividly recreates for us the life of his epoch. 

[53] 



94. PARABLE OF THE SOWER. 

Oil on panel, 28%x40i/£. 

Signed and dated lower right: BRUEGHEL 1557. 

Lit.: F. XIV, no. 4, pi. IV; G. Gluck, Bruegels Gem'dlde, 1933, no. 5, repr. 

Friedlander has noted the existence of old copies in the hands of the 
Paris dealer, Manteau (1934), and in the Prado, no. 1964. He also 
observes that this is the oldest signed and dated painting by Bruegel and 
compares with it the engravings of the so-called great landscapes, which, 
based upon somewhat older drawings, were published by Jerome Cock 
about 1557. 

M. STUYCK DEL BRUYERE, ANTWERP. 

95. THE UNFAITHFUL SHEPHERD. 

Oil on panel, 24 x 33i/£. 

Painted about 1568. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 419, repr.; E. Michel, Bruegel, 1931, no. 32, pi. 40; G. Gluck, 

Bruegels Gem'dlde, 1933, no. 37, repr. 

Hulin de Loo has associated this picture with an entry in the 1621 
inventory of the Imperial Collection at Prague and with one to be found 
in the inventory of 1647 now in Skokloster, Sweden. The authorship of 
the picture has been the subject of much discussion with opinions about 
equally divided. Those who doubt that our picture is by Bruegel, the 
elder, consider it an old copy after one of his lost compositions. 
Van Puyvelde 1 sees in it a relationship with the work of Marten van Cleve. 
The picture has suffered although fortunately not in important portions. 
It is unquestionably the finest extant example of this composition. 2 Its 
great vitality, the boundless expanse of windswept desolation, the plung- 
ing hulk of the fleeing shepherd certainly suggest the hand of the master. 
It is hard to conceive such lyric quality from the mentality of a copyist. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

LUCAS VAN GASSEL, B. c. 1480-D. c. 1570. 

Born at Helmont about 1480, the artist worked principally in Brussels where 
he died probably about 1570. Van Gassel, whose works are extremely rare, 
specialized in landscape, perpetuating the traditions of Patinir and de Bles 
and filling his panoramas with many diverse elements. 



1. Burlington Magazine, Aug. 1935, p. 84. 

2. Gluck, op. cit. p. 83, cites a seventeenth century copy in a Brussels collection in 1928. For 
another copy (perhaps the same referred to by Gluck), see Connoisseur, April, 1912, pi. 
XL VIII. This picture was reputedly signed. Close examination of the Johnson picture would 
tend to show that the rock and grasses in the right foreground are not original with the 
painting. 

[54] 



96. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Oil on panel, 28 x 36. 

Signed with the monogram L G, and dated 1542. 

Lit.: Thieme-Becker, Kunstlerlexikon; Exhibition Flemish Landscape, 

Brussels, 1926, no. 128. 

The monogrammed works of Lucas van Gassel are rare. 

MME. CRANSHOFF, BRUSSELS. 

JAN CORNELLS VERMEYEN, B. 1500-D. 1559. 

Born at Malines, he was appointed court painter to Margaret of Austria in 1529 
and in 1534 went to Spain at the behest of Charles V for the purpose of accom- 
panying the latter's expedition into Tunis. The artist drew the siege of Tunis 
and other events of the campaign. These drawings served subsequently as the 
basis of cartoons for tapestries made in Brussels for the Emperor. Few pictures 
of his hand, apparently, have survived. In addition to military scenes Vermeyen 
also painted religious subjects, landscapes and portraits. 

97. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 
Oil on panel, 38% x26%. 

Lit.: F. XII, no. 398, pi. LXXXIII. 

JACQUES SELIGMANN AND COMPANY, NEW YORK. 

98. PORTRAIT OF A MAN. 
Oil on panel, \li/ 2 x 123^. 

The painting is attributed by Friedlander to Jan Vermeyen. 

SCHAEFFER GALLERIES, NEW YORK. 

JAN MASSYS, B. 1504-D. 1575/80. 

According to van Mander, Jan was the son of Quentin Massys. He was born in 
Antwerp in 1509, elected a member of the Guild in 1531 and died there between 
the years 1575 and 1580. It would appear that, because of his religious beliefs, 
he was banished from the city in 1544 and not allowed to return until 1558. 
His place of residence during that time is not known nor are any works pre- 
served. 

The period of his greatest productivity lies in the ten years following his return 
to Antwerp when he was chiefly occupied with religious and genre subjects. 
One of his principal works, which gives a foretaste of the seventeenth century, 
is the magnificent Susannah and the Elders, now in the Musees Royaux in 
Brussels. 

[55] 



99. JUDITH WITH THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES. 

Oil on panel, 40i^ x 29^. 

Signed: "Opus Johannes Matsius". 

Dated 1543. 

Lit.: F. XIII, no. 16; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Catalogue of Paintings, 

1921, p. 141, no. 93. 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON. 

PIETER AERTSEN, B. 1508-D. 1573/5. 

Surnamed Lange-Pier because of his stature, Aertsen was born and died in 
Amsterdam. He entered the Guild of St. Luke in Antwerp and remained in 
Belgium from 1535 until 1556. Aertsen painted religious compositions and 
designed cartoons for painted glass. He is also known for his paintings of 
popular scenes. While his principal pupil was Joachim de Beukelaer, Aertsen 
was the precursor of such painters as Jordaens, Snyders and Jan Fyt who painted 
in Antwerp half a century later. 

100. THE COOK. 

Oil on panel, 50|4 x 32i4- 

Signed with a monogram on the right and dated on the chimney: 1559, 

16° Cal. Aug. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 705. 

MUSSES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

ANTHONIS MOR, B. c. 1517-D. c. 1576. 

This celebrated painter of portraits, born in Utrecht, was the pupil of Jan van 
Scorel from 1526 until 1528. He was accepted in the Guild at Utrecht in 1547. 
Mor, both through the intermediary of his master and because of his visits to 
Rome, came under the spell of Italian painting and was much influenced by 
it. He worked in Utrecht, in Antwerp and in the courts of Madrid, Lisbon, 
London and Brussels. His chief fame rests upon his numerous and excellent 
portraits. 

101. MARGARETTA OF PARMA. 

Oil on canvas, 28i/£ x 28i/£. 

Painted about 1550, repainted about 1570. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 428, repr. 

Margaretta of Parma was the natural daughter of the Holy Roman 
Emperor Charles V by Margaret van Ghent, a Fleming. She was raised 

[56] 



by her paternal aunts Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy and Maria 
of Hungary. She married Alessandro dei Medici in 1533 and after his 
assassination in 1537 was married (1542) to Ottavio Farnese, Duke of 
Parma. In 1559 Philip II of Spain appointed her Regent of the Nether- 
lands where she continued to rule with some difficulty until 1567 when 
she resigned and retired to Italy. 

The Johnson portrait is closely related to the picture in the Kaiser 
Friedrich-Museum, 585B, which was painted some ten or twelve years 
later. Both portraits are similar in general pose with, however, strik- 
ing differences in detail. In the Johnson version the costume would 
seem to be later (about 1570) than the one in the Berlin picture, yet the 
face in our version is of a woman between her twenty-fifth and thirtieth 
years. This apparent contradiction is fully explained by the radiograph 
of the Johnson portrait which shows under the present dress an earlier 
one similar to that of the Berlin portrait. Here, too, appears the long 
string of pearls shown in the foreign painting but modified in the 
Johnson picture in favor of a heavy metal necklace from which hangs a 
jeweled cross. 

It is possible to advance the theory that the Johnson portrait, of which 
the face shows no sign of repainting, may have been originally painted 
about 1550 and modified to its present appearance later than 1560-62, 
which appears to be the date of the Berlin picture. If we imagine the 
reason for the modification to have been one of feminine vanity and 
a desire to appear modern, we may set the year 1570 or thereabouts for 
the date of the Johnson picture as it appears today. 

There is an old copy of the Berlin picture, a half length portrait, in the 
Kunsthistoriches Museum in Vienna, no. 1021. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

MARTEN VAN CLEVE, B. 1527-D. 1581. 

Marten van Cleve was born and died in Antwerp. He was the pupil of his 
father, Willem van Cleve, and Frans Floris. The artist was a painter of genre 
scenes in the manner of Pieter Bruegel, the elder. He painted figures in land- 
scapes for Jacob Grimmer and Gillis van Coninxloo. 

102. DESTRUCTION OF THE CITADEL OF ANTWERP. 

Oil on panel, 251/4 x 47. 
Painted about 1577-81. 

Around the border of the tent in the foreground is the following 
inscription: 

[57] 



"ANTWERPS KASTEEL DEN. 23. AUGUSTUS 157 (7?)" 
In the inventory of the collection of Herman de Neyt at Antwerp, 1 
dated October 15-21, 1642, there is mentioned: 

"Een affbrekinge van tcasteel deser stadt van Antwerpen, gemaect van 

Marten van Cleve, gen. no. 88". 
which may refer to this picture. 

There is also another reference, probably to this picture, in Henri 

Hymans' translation of van Mander 2 as follows: 

"M. van den Branden a trouve la mention de quelques oeuvres de 
Martin van Cleef ou van Cleve dans de vieux inventaires . . . 
et, chose plus interessante, la Demolition de la Citadelle d'Anvers, un 
evenement contemporain, car il s'agit naturellement du soulevement 
de 1577." 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 



GILLIS VAN CONINXLOO, B. 1544-D. 1607. 

The artist, who was born in Antwerp, was one of the most popular landscape 
painters of his day. In many of his compositions the figures were added by 
Marten van Cleve. 

103. LANDSCAPE WITH FIGURES. 
Oil on panel, 75|4 x423^. 

HOOGENDIJK GALLERY, AMSTERDAM. 



MARTIN DE VOS, B. 1523-D. 1603. 

Born in Antwerp, the artist was a pupil of his father, Pieter de Vos, and of 
Frans Floris. He also studied with Tintoretto in Venice and his work shows 
the influence of this master. His principal paintings are in the form of large 
altar-pieces which were executed for various churches in Antwerp. 

104. APOLLO AND THE MUSES. 

Oil on panel, \1% x 25. 

Signed on the left: F. M DVOS. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 758. 

MUSfiES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 



1. J. Denuce, The Antwerp Art Galleries, 1932, vol. II, p. 94. 

2. Le Livre des Peintres de Carel van Mander, 1884, vol. I, p. 275. 

[58] 



PIETER POURBUS, B. c. 1510-D. 1584. 

Pourbus was born at Gouda and died at Bruges in which city he had worked 
as a follower of Lancelot Blondeel. His production includes religious pictures 
and portraits as well as cartoons for stained glass. He became a member of 
the Guild of Bruges in 1543. 

105. PORTRAIT OF JEAN FERNAGUUT. 

Oil on panel, 383^ x 28. 

Signed and dated: 1551, bearing the Bruges Guild mark. 

Lit.: Fierens-Gevaert, La Peinture a Bruges, 1922, repr. pi. 74; Flemish Art, 

Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 250. 

The portrait was painted when Fernaguut was twenty-one years old. 
The putto in the upper left holds his coat-of-arms, and a view of the 
Place de la Grue at Bruges is to be seen through the window. 

MUS£E COMMUNAL, BRUGES. 

FRANZ POURBUS, the younger, B. c. 1569-D. 1622. 

This artist was born in Antwerp in 1569 or 1570 and died in Paris in 1622. In 
Antwerp he was probably the pupil of Otto Venius, and became a member of the 
Guild in 1591. He traveled in Italy, sojourning in Turin, Mantua and Naples. 

106. PORTRAIT OF A LADY. 
Oil on canvas, 26 x 221/4. 

Lit.: Worcester Art Museum, Catalogue of Paintings, 1922, p. 48. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

107. PORTRAIT OF ANTON TRIEST. 

Oil on canvas, 421/4 x 385/£. 

Painted about 1600. 

Lit.: Cicerone, vol. XVI, 1922, p. 58. 

This portrait was painted when the Chevalier Anton Triest was fifty-four 
years of age. In that year he was knighted by the Archduke Albert on 
the latter's triumphal entry into Ghent. 

SAM HARTVELD, ANTWERP. 

ABEL GRIMMER, B. before 1577-D. before 1619. 

Abel Grimmer or Grimer was born at Antwerp and was the pupil of his father, 
Jacob. In 1592 he was admitted to the Guild of Antwerp. The artist is best 
known for his landscapes and genre subjects. 

[59] 



THE FOUR SEASONS. 

Lit.: Antwerp Museum, no. 831. 

108. SPRING. 

Oil on panel, 13x25% 6 . 

After the well-known engraving by P. A. Merica, after Pieter Bruegel's 
drawing (1555-6). 

109. SUMMER. 

Oil on panel, 13x181/^. 

Signed and dated, lower right: ABEL GRIMER F 1607. 

After the well-known engraving by P. A. Merica, after Pieter Bruegel's 

drawing (1555-6). 

110. AUTUMN. 

Oil on panel, 13xl8% 6 . 

Signed and dated on the well: ABEL GRIMERFECIT 1637. 

The date is false and should probably read 1607 as on the other two 
panels. The painting is after an engraving by P. A. Merica, after a 
drawing by Hans Bol. 

111. WINTER. 

Oil on panel, 13xl8% . 

Signed and dated, lower right: ABEL GRIMERFECIT 1607. 

After Merica's engraving, after Hans Bol. 

MUS£E ROYAL DES BEAUX-ARTS, ANTWERP. 

PIETER BRUEGHEL, the younger, B. 1564-D. 1637-38. 

Born in Brussels, the younger Brueghel worked principally in Antwerp, the 
city of his death. He was the pupil of Gillis van Coninxloo and was received 
in the St. Luke Guild in 1585. He was chiefly a painter of landscapes and genre. 
His chief fame rests on the numerous copies which he made from the works of 
his father, Pieter Bruegel, the elder. Indeed, a goodly number of the father's 
lost works are known to us through surviving copies made by the son. The 
pupils of the younger Brueghel include Franz Snyders, Gonzales Coques and his 
own son, Pieter III. 

112. THE MARRIAGE PROCESSION. 

Oil on panel, 36 x 48. 

Signed and dated: P. BREUGHEL 1623. 

Lit.: Catalogue de V exposition de van Eyck a Brueghel, Paris, 1935, no. 19. 

[60] 



The picture was formerly in the collection of Count Leon Miniszech, 
sold at Paris in 1902, no. 97 of the catalogue. A smaller version of the 
same subject by Pieter Brueghel, the younger, is in the Mus£e Royal, 
Antwerp, no. 807. 

ALDUS C. HIGGINS, WORCESTER. 

113. WINTER LANDSCAPE WITH TRAPPERS. 

Oil on panel, \5s/ 4 x 22^. 

The painting is after a composition of Pieter Bruegel, the elder, which 
is in the Delporte Collection, Brussels. There are several replicas of the 
composition. This painting was shown in the exhibition of Le paysage 
flamand, Brussels (Musees Royaux), 1926, no. 76. 

BARON COPP£E, BRUSSELS. 



JAN BRUEGHEL, the elder, B. 1568-D. 1625. 

Jan Brueghel, the elder, or Velvet Brueghel as he is sometimes called, was born 
in Brussels, the second son of Pieter Bruegel, the elder. After travels in Germany 
and Italy, including a stay at Rome (1593-94), the artist settled in Antwerp, 
becoming a master in the Guild there in 1597. A great friend of Rubens, the 
two often collaborated, Brueghel executing landscape settings or garlands of 
flowers (see no. 120) for figure compositions painted by Rubens. 

114. LANDSCAPE WITH HERD OF CATTLE. 

Oil on panel, 171/4x26. 

Signed and dated: Brueghel 1613. 

The painting was included in the exhibition of Le paysage flamand, 
Brussels (Musees Royaux), 1926, no. 78. 

BARON COPP£E, BRUSSELS. 

115. FLOWERS. 

Oil on panel, 18^x25 14. 

Lit.: Tresor d'art flamand, Antwerp, 1930, vol. I, no. 41. 

FRANCK COLLECTION, ANTWERP. 

116. STILL LIFE. 

MUS£ES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 



[61] 



JAN BRUEGHEL, the younger, B. 1601-D. 1678. 

Born in Antwerp, the son and follower of Jan Brueghel, the elder, the artist 
went to Italy at an early age, returning via Paris. He became a master in the 
Antwerp Guild in 1625. He took over the Antwerp studio of his father, who 
died in 1625, and shortly attained a considerable reputation as a landscape and 
flower painter, collaborating with artists such as Rubens, de Momper and others 
of the period. His pictures follow closely the style of his father. 

117. VILLAGE SCENE. 

Oil on copper, 9 14 x 12 14. 

Lit.: Ernest Scheyer, Baroque Painting in the Detroit Institute of Arts, 
1937; E. P. Richardson, "From Old Bruegel to van Goyen", The Art 
Quarterly, vol. I, 1938, p. 190. 

DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS. 



ROELAND SAVERY, B. 1576-D. 1639. 

The artist, who was born in Courtrai, is especially well known for his land- 
scapes. His early work shows the influence of Pieter and Jan Brueghel, the 
elder and also of Gillis van Coninxloo. His pictures are remarkable as intimate 
studies of nature rendered in great detail. 

118. SACK OF A VILLAGE. 

Oil on panel, 19 x 271/. 

Signed and dated: ROELANDT SAVERY FT. 1604. 

Lit.: K. Erasmus, Roelant Savery, 1908, p. 73. 

Erasmus notes that the painting shows the strong influence of the 
Massacre of the Innocents by Pieter Bruegel, the elder, in the Museum 
at Vienna. 

MUSfiE COMMUNAL DE PEINTURE, COURTRAI. 



SEBASTIAN VRANCKX, B. 1578-D. 1647. 

Born in Antwerp, the artist distinguished himself in painting battles and cavalry 
skirmishes. He also frequently executed the figures in landscapes by other 
painters. 



[62] 



119. COMBAT BETWEEN LEKKERBETJE AND BRIAUTE. 

Oil on panel, 27i/ 8 x4:li/ 8 . 

The painting represents the engagement which took place on February 
fifth, 1640, at Bois-le-Duc, between the troops of the French commander, 
Briaute, who was in the service of Holland, and those of Lekkerbetje, 
who was the lieutenant of the Spanish governor of Bois-le-Duc. 

BARON COPPfiE, BRUSSELS. 

PETER PAUL RUBENS, B. 1577-D. 1640. 

Peter Paul Rubens was born at Siegen in Westphalia and died in Antwerp. An 
artist of many talents, he is unquestionably the greatest Flemish master of the 
seventeenth century. Rubens was the pupil of Tobias Verhaecht, Adam 
van Noort and of Otto Venius in Antwerp. He was received into the St. Luke 
Guild in 1598 and two years later traveled in Italy visiting Venice, Florence, 
Rome and Genoa. The Duke of Mantua sent him on a mission to Spain after 
which he again traveled to Italy in 1608. Upon his return to Antwerp he was 
named court painter to the Archduke Albert. 

Rubens is principally identified with Antwerp where a galaxy of young painters 
surrounded him as pupils and assistants. Among these were van Dyck, Snyders, 
Seghers, David Teniers father and son, de Croyer and Jan Brueghel. Rubens' 
great popularity, his numerous commissions and the fact that he was employed 
as a designer of tapestries, that he understood architecture and sculpture, made 
of his atelier a place of activity and accomplishment. 

In 1622, at the request of Maria dei Medici, Rubens was working in the 
Palace of Luxembourg. Between 1628 and 1630 he was carrying out diplo- 
matic missions in Spain and in London. A man of talents in the humanities 
as well as in the arts— in diplomacy as in the mastery of languages— Rubens 
remains one of those titans which nature at rare intervals places in our midst. 
His art renewed the vitality of a fast declining Flemish superiority in painting. 
For succeeding generations and down to our day Rubens' painting has been 
a reference point to which whole schools have looked for guidance and 
inspiration. 

120. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH FORGET-ME-NOTS. 

Oil on panel, 25% x 19. 

Painted about 1620-24. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 390. 

As is the case with other compositions of this kind, the figures were 
painted by Rubens while Jan Brueghel executed the landscape and rose- 
bush. 
MUSSES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 

[631 



121. THE VISION OF CONSTANTINE. 

Oil on panel, 17^x22. 

Painted about 1621-22. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 659, repr.; A. Rosenberg, P. P. Rubens, 1905, repr., p. 23 L 

This is one of twelve sketches made by Rubens for a series of tapestries 
relating the history of Constantine. The sketches were executed for 
Louis XIII of France and the tapestries were woven by the Gobelin 
works. Of the twelve sketches, formerly in the collection of the Duke 
of Orleans, only two, in addition to the present one, have been found: 
the Baptism of Constantine of the Bischoffsheim Collection, Paris, and 
a sketch in the Wallace Collection, London. The Johnson picture was 
engraved by Nicholas Tardieu. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

122. CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. 

Oil on panel, 193^ x 16i/£. 

Painted before 1625. 

Lit.: M. Rooses, L'Oeuvre de P. P. Rubens, II, p. 362; Worcester Art 

Museum, Bulletin, Jan. 1932, vol. XXII, pp. 72-75, repr. 

The picture is a study for the two famous versions of the Coronation 
of the Virgin in the Brussels and Berlin galleries. Gliick and Frimmel 
believe the sketch precedes the Berlin picture by a few years. That 
version has been placed between 1625 and 1630 by Rooses. 

LENT ANONYMOUSLY THROUGH THE WORCESTER ART MUSEUM. 

123. WISDOM CONQUERS WAR AND DISCORD UNDER THE RULE OF 
JAMES I OF ENGLAND. 

Oil on canvas, 27^ x 33%. 

Painted about 1630. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 392. 

About 1630 Charles I commissioned Rubens to decorate the ceiling of 
the great banquet hall in Whitehall Palace, which houses today a war 
and marine museum. In a series of nine panels the master represented 
the glorification of James I. The present picture is a study for the right 
part of one of the three large panels, the complete sketch of which is 
in the Vienna Museum. 

MUS£ES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 



[64] 



124. HOLY FAMILY BENEATH THE APPLE TREE. 
Oil on canvas, 42 x 39i/£. 

Painted about 1630-32. 

Lit.: Cinq siecles d'art, Brussels, 1935, no. 194. 

Another larger version of this picture exists in the Vienna Museum, 

no. 871. 
MME. VAN GELDER, BRUSSELS. 

125. LANDSCAPE WITH GOATHERD. 

Oil on panel, 15i/£ x 233/£. 

Painted about 1635. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 666, repr.; W. R. Valentiner, The Art of the Low Countries, 

1914, no. 39, repr. 

Like no. 126 this is doubtless a sketch for a larger work which has, appar- 
ently, been lost. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 

126. LANDSCAPE WITH PHILEMON AND BAUCIS. 

Oil on panel, 15i/£ x 25. 

Painted about 1638. 

Lit.: J. II, no. 667, repr.; W. R. Valentiner, The Art of the Low Countries, 

1914, no. 40. 

This impressive work is the study for the large picture of the same sub- 
ject in the Vienna Museum, no. 869. 

JOHN G. JOHNSON COLLECTION. 



CORNELIS DE VOS, B. 1585-D. 1651. 

Born at Hulst, de Vos resided in Antwerp after 1596 where he apprenticed 
himself to David Remeeus. Between the years 1604 and 1608 he traveled and 
upon his return to Antwerp in 1608 was admitted to the St. Luke Guild. His 
fame rests upon his portraits, especially family groups. 

127. PORTRAIT OF ABRAHAM GRAPHEUS, the elder. , 

Oil on canvas, 47i/£ x40i/£. 

Signed and dated, lower right: C. DE VOS. F. ANNO. 1620. 

Lit.: Antwerp Museum, no. 104. 

The picture was painted for the Guild Hall of St. Luke at Antwerp. 

MUSEE ROYAL DES BEAUX-ARTS, ANTWERP. 

[65] 



DANIEL SEGHERS, B. 1590-D. 1661. 

Seghers was the pupil of Jan (Velvet) Brueghel. His chief fame rests upon his 
numerous and beautifully executed flower pieces which he was one of the first 
to paint. The garland of flowers which was frequently placed around medal- 
lion portraits or groups was his invention. Daniel added floral embellishments 
to the decoration of the new Jesuit Church in Antwerp. This work was done 
in collaboration with Rubens, van Dyck and Gerard Seghers. The artist's 
knowledge was doubtless scientific because his flowers are painted with close 
attention to correct detail. 

128. GARLAND OF FLOWERS. 

MUSfiES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 



JACOB JORDAENS, B. 1593-D. 1678. 

Jacob Jordaens worked in Antwerp where he was born and where he died. He 
first studied painting in water colors, making imitations of tapestries in this 
medium. He was a pupil of Adam van Noort, one of the masters of Rubens. 
Jordaens was much influenced by the style of the Flemish imitators of Car- 
ravaggio. 

129. SAINT YVES, PATRON OF LAWYERS. 

Oil on canvas, 42 x 53. 

Signed: J. Jor fecit 1645. 

Lit.: Brussels Museum, no. 243. 

There is a variant, showing another interior and life-size figure, in the 
Museum at Antwerp. The same subject also occurs in a tapestry. 

MUSSES ROYAUX, BRUSSELS. 



ANTHONY VAN DYCK, B. 1599-D. 1641. 

Van Dyck was born in Antwerp and at the age of eighteen was already cele- 
brated. He was a pupil of Hendrik van Balen and of Rubens. The painter was 
elected a member of the St. Luke Guild in 1618 and two years later became 
one of the chief collaborators of Rubens. Between 1621 and 1626 he traveled 
in Italy, visiting Genoa, Florence, Rome, Venice and Sicily. From 1627 to 1632 
van Dyck worked in Antwerp and during this period was both prolific and 
enormously successful. In 1632 he went to London where Charles I made him 
court painter. From his London period van Dyck has left a vast number of 
portraits of members of the court and of the nobility. 

[66] 



130. PORTRAIT OF THE MUSICIAN, JACQUES GAULTIER. 

Oil on canvas, 38%x30% . 

Painted about 1620-21. 

Lit.: G. Gliick, "Some Portraits of Musicians by Van Dyck," Burlington 

Magazine, vol. 69, 1936, pp. 147-153. 

Gliick identifies the portrait as that of the well-known musician. He 
compares the face of the sitter with that represented in the etching of 
Gaul tier (1632-34) by Jan Lievens. 

TSCHUPPIK COLLECTION, ZURICH. 

131. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Oil on canvas, 30i/£x23%. 
TSCHUPPIK COLLECTION, ZURICH. 

132. PORTRAIT OF LADY DIGBY AS PRUDENTIA. 

Oil on canvas, 40 x 32. 

The painting, which is a finished study for the large portrait of Lady 
Digby as Prudentia in the Royal Collections at Windsor Castle, is first 
mentioned by Bellori in his Vite de' Pittori, Scultori ed Architetti 
moderni, Rome, 1672, p. 261, who notes that van Dyck was so pleased 
with the large portrait that he made "un altra in picciolo". There are 
two references to the picture in the Vertue Notebooks as follows: 

"a fine collection of pictures Thomas Walker Esqr ... by Vandyke 
a large picture the Model of that at Windsor, being Lady Anastasia 
Digby over comeing vice." 1 

"last of June (1748) dind at Tho. Walkers Esq. saw his collection of 
pictures &c. . . . But when I lookt on the portrait 8c emblematical 
figure, that adorns that fine picture of Lady Anastasia Stanley Wife of 
Sr. Kenelm Digby. being small life the whole picture about <near> 
4. foot high or more . . . surely a master pece of Art by Vandyke, 
for the lovely favorite Lady Digby. $c Sr. Kenelmn who always was 
his most generous friend Sc protector." 2 

Horace Walpole 3 also refers to the picture: 

"Mr. Skinner, with the collection of the late Mr. Thomas Walker, 
has a fine little picture of the Lady Venetia Digby, wife of Sir Kenelm; 
though only a model for the large one at Windsor, it is exquisitely 
finished." 



1. Walpole Society, 1935-1936, Vertue Notebooks, Volume IV, Oxford, 1936, p. 178f. 

2. Walpole Society, 1933-1934, Vertue Notebooks, Volume III, Oxford, 1934, p. 141. 

3. Horace Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in England, ed. by R. N. Wornum, London, 1862, 
vol. I, p. 323. 

[67] 



Smith 4 describes the painting as in the possession of the family of the 
late Sir Eliab Harvey. Ernest Law states that 

"we have failed to trace its present possessor. Wherever it may now 
be, it is probably identical with the piece, formerly at Gonthurst, 
once the residence of the Digby's, which Pennant, in his 'Journey from 
Chester to London', published in 1811, spoke of as similar to the 
Windsor original, though he added that her hair was there 'light and 
different in colour from that in the original' ". 5 

SAM HARTVELD, ANTWERP. 



4. Smith, Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of the . . . Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters, 
London, 1831, Part III, p. 186, no. 636. 

5. Ernest Law, Van Dyck's Pictures at Windsor Castle, London, 1899, p. 24. 



[68] 



INDEX OF ARTISTS 

(Artists are listed alphabetically. The numbers are those of the 
catalogue. Asterisks are used to indicate reproductions.) 



Aertsen, Pieter # 100 

Benson, Ambrosius 79, 80 

Bles, Henri met de 89 

Bosch, Jerome *36, *37, *38, *39, *40, *41, 42 

Bouts, Aelbrecht 29, 30, *31 

Bouts, Dirk *10, 11, 12 

Bruegel, Pieter, the elder *94, *95 

Brueghel, Jan, the elder 1 14, 1 15, * 1 16 

Brueghel, Jan, the younger 117 

Brueghel, Pieter, the younger 1 12, 1 13 

Bruges Master 16 

Bruges Master *50 

Campin, Robert *3, 4, *5 

Christus, Petrus *2 

Cleve, Joos van 63, *64, 65, 66, 67, 68,69, 70 

Cleve, Marten van 102 

Coninxloo, Gillis van 103 

David, Gerard *32, *33, *34, 35 

Dyck, Anthony van 130, *131, 132 

Eyck, Jan van * 1, *2 

Gassel, Lucas van 96 

Goes, Hugo van der * 13, * 14, 15 

Gossan, Jan *54, 55, 56, 57 

Grimmer, Abel 108, 109, 110, 111 

Hemessen, Jan van *75 

Isenbrandt, Adriaen 81, 82 

Isenbrandt, Adriaen (?) 83, 84 

Jordaens, Jacob * 129 

Marmion, Simon 17, *18, *19 

Massys, Jan 99 

[69] 



Massys, Quentin *43, *44, 45, *46, 47 

Master from Hoogstraten 91, 92 

Master of Frankfort 86 

Master of the Groote Adoration 93 

Master of the Half Length Female Figures 76, 77, * 78 

Master of the Magdalene Legend *85 

Master of the Mansi Magdalene 90 

Master of the St. Barbara Legend 62 

Master of the St. Lucia Legend 28 

Master of the St. Ursula Legend *26, 27 

Master with the Embroidered Foliage *48, 49 

Memling, Hans *20, *21, *22, 23, 24 

Memling, follower of *25 

Mor, Anthonis * 101 

Mostaert, Jan *87, 88 

Orley, Bernard van *51, 52, *53 

Patinir, Joachim 58, 59, *60, 61 

Pourbus, Franz, the younger * 106, 107 

Pourbus, Pieter 105 

Provost, Jan 71,72 

Provost, Jan (?) *73, 74 

Rubens, Peter Paul *120, *121, 122, 123, *124, 125, *126 

Savery, Roeland 118 

Seghers, Daniel 128 

Vermeyen, Jan *97, 98 

Vos, Cornells de 127 

Vos, Martin de * 104 

Vranckx, Sebastian 119 

Weyden, Roger van der *6, *7, 8, 9 



[70] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 




2. St. Jerome in his Study 

by Jan van Eyck and Petrus Christus 




5. Virgin and Child with die Crescent 
by Robert Campin 




3. Portrait of a Princess of The House of Savoy 
by Robert Campin 




7. Virgin and St. John 
by Roger van der Weyden 




6. Crucifixion 

by Roger van der Weyden 




10. Moses Before the Burning Bush 
by Dirk Bouts 




13. Holy Family 

by Hugo van der Goes 




18. St. Jerome 

by Simon Marmion 




14. Portrait of a Donor and St. John 
by Hugo van der Goes 




19. Crucifixion 

by Simon Marmion 




21. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian 
by Hans Memling 




20. Portrait of a Man Holding a Carnation 
by Hans Memling 




22. Christ Crowned with Thorns 
by Hans Memling 




25. The Investiture of St. Ildefonso 
by A Follower of Hans Memling 




26. Portrait of a Donor 

by The Master of the St. Ursula Legend 




31. Virgin and Child with an Angel 
by Aelbrecht Bouts 




34. Virgin and Child 
bv Gerard David 




32. Pieta 

by Gerard David 




33. Virgin Enthroned 
by Gerard David 







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41. Mocking of Christ 
by Jerome Bosch 




46. Rest on the Flight into Egypt 
by Quentin Massys 




44. Mary Magdalene 
by Quentin Massys 




43. Maria Egyptiaca 
by Quentin Massys 




48. Virgin and Child with Angels 

by The Master with the Embroidered Foliage 




50. Scenes from the Life of Christ 
by a Bruges Master 




51. Portrait of Dr. Zelle 
by Bernard van Orley 




53. Virgin and Child 
by Bernard van Orley 




73. Portrait of Claude de Toulongeon and his Patron, St. Claude 
by Jan Provost (?) 




54. Portrait of a Merchant 
by Jan Gossart, called Mabuse 




75. Woman Playing a Clavichord 
by Jan van Hemessen 




78. Virgin and Child 

by The Master of the Half Length Female Figures 




85. Mary Magdalene Preaching 

by The Master of the Magdalene Legend 




87. Portrait of a Man 
by Jan Mostaert 






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101. Margaretta of Parma 
by Anthonis Mor 




106. Portrait of a Lady 

by Franz Pourbus, the younger 



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100. The Cook 
by Pieter Aertsen 




116. Still Life 

by Jan Brueghel, the elder 




120. Virgin and Child with Forget-me-nots 
by Peter Paul Rubens 




121. The Vision of Constantine 
by Peter Paul Rubens 




124. Holy Family Beneath the Apple Tree 
by Peter Paul Rubens 




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131. Virgin and Child 
by Anthony van Dyck 



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tg.be vLecr. 




XVII CENTURY 



PMe*rt\ 



[A.F.van c/cr Aieu/er? 



J. d Ariois 



J. von Craesbeek 



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,/. va n Osst, "Younger 



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D. Teniers^EJJ er 



XVI CENTURY 

Frans Pour bus the Elder 



Pftrueohel the You nger 



L.van toninxfo* 



C.van Con'mxloo 



Pieter Pourbus 



[Ambrose ftensoru 



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von Lomnx/oo 




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Adriaen Isenbrondr 



JqnProyost 



XV CENTURY 







Gerard David 

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crome boscn 



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A\qster of the Lucia Legend 



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Aelbrec 



AVaster of ^T^5t. Ursula Leoend 



Hans A\emlin 



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Petrus Christus 



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on Eycto. 



F LAN^ ERS 



HAI NAUL7 



~ ^» <f 2 Erasmus* 42ue//inus 






J. yS i herechls 



Anthonu van Puck 



Lucas van V Jen 



J. S u^> zerrnans 



Daniel Severs ^ ""^ 

C J^ |Peler Paul ffuben^J jj^ob J^do 



Poclond Sover 



Cornelis de Voe> Jan FbrueaheirYou nqep 



^\G.dc Crouer 




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ens 



Sebastian Vranckx 



.orttn de Vos 



AVartin van Cleve 



Pieter Aerisen 



Pieter fcrueael {he Elder 




Henri met de E>!es 



asferofthcAioqdaieneLeqendl M ^,A\ asters, Aiqnsi Moo/Cro^ 



[Master of the St. .Rarbqrq Legend 



e. AVastcr of Frankfort 



Adoration 



5ernard van Or1cij_f I Jon Gossart 
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|Janv nHeme7^n\ jL he Mflst>r of * he Hotf Lgn ^ ^ mal " 

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en tin AVassVS 




Joos von CI eve 



Joachim Patinlr 



b RABANT 



ANTWE RP